Read more:


SpaceX Future Concept of Landed Spaceships (Big Falcon Rocket) on Mars


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Artist Concept of Moon Base Alpha led by Elon Musk (SpaceX)


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


Elon Musk Concept of Mars Base with Big BFR Rockets


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Sunday, May 5, 2019

First Image of Black Hole | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: World's First Image of Black Hole

Description: After the prediction of existence of Black Hole, we discovered and imaged the first black hole. The image was taken using NASA's Event Horizon Telescope.

Image Source :

Image Credit: Event Horizon | NASA

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Celestron Power Seeker 21039 Telescope

As the summer begins, it is the best time to look forward and deep into the dark night sky. The sky will be clear and cloudless. This will be the best time to learn about space objects and stars. You can find constellations, evening and morning stars (Venus), the most aspiring Mars on the horizon. 

Since, most of the people around world like astronomy and astrophysics. And also childhood memories of moon and stars, the stories of our grandparents in night is unforgettable. So it the best time to re-call and realize the truth and reality with optical sky instruments.

Celestron Power Seeker 21039 Telescope

  • Provide erect images for sky observation
  • Quick and easy setup no adjustment
  • Fully coated glass optics with high transmission coatings
  • 2x Barlow lens
  • Has 5x24 finderscope
  • Has 118x magnification power

Buy this Telescope at Just Rs.4,144 Instead of Rs.7000 Summer Discount

Chronology of Mars Exploration Missions

Name of the Article  Chronology of Mars Exploration Missions
Author                            Malaya Kumar Biswal M and Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu
Published Online       January 2019
Published by      
DOI                                   10.13140/RG.2.2.36435.22560
Download Full Text  PDF


                 Several launch catalogs and datasheets are available online. But none of them replenish detailed and acute description about the planetary Mars Missions. In order to provide concise and precise information about Mars missions a comparative summary of Mars missions is tabulated in this following article. It comprising of name of the spacecraft, type of the spacecraft, date of launch, type and name of the launch vehicles, country, program of the mission and outcomes of the mission. Additionally, it also portrays future proposed Mars lander mission, in-development missions and proposals for the future Mars missions.

Cite this page as: Biswal M, Malaya Kumar & Annavarapu, Ramesh Naidu.(2019. Chronology of Mars Exploration Missions. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.36435.22560

Researchgate link to this publication page Click Here

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Scientists Imaged a New Black Hole

New Black Hole Imaged by NASA's Event Horizon Telescope

A New Black Hole Image changed the perspective of Astrophysics and Relativity


  • NASA Captured the first ever image of a Black Hole
  • The Image was captured by a radio telescope called "Event Horizon Telescope"
  • The achievement has been made by United States National Science Foundation
  • The Black Hole is about 55 million light years away from us.
  • The mass of the Black Hole is about 6.5 billion times the mass of Sun.
  • The Black hole is found in Messier 87 
    The mystery of the existence of Black hole remained unknown until it can be visualized through our eye. Scientists and Theoretical Physicists succeeded in proving the existence of Black Hole (A Major contribution to the theory of black hole was made by famous scientist Dr.Stephen Hawking). But still it remained a mystery, that really the black hole exists or not?. To answer this question scientists and engineers around the world modified their telescopes to observe and image the existence of black hole in the Universe.

What is a black hole?

     A Black Hole is a massive region in the aperture of Space which have gravity multiple times of the speed of light. Black hole is formed from a dead star (As per black hole formation theory). The region of space where you cannot find any stars, light spots or any other light source and the regions looks dark is called the region of black hole. It engulfs the nearby stars, planets and asteroids. The gravity is very much large, a single source of light cannot escape from it (which is imaginable).

Black Hole Imaged:

     Finally, after the major discovery of the existence of "Gravitational Waves" that arises as result of collision of two neutron stars (i.e. black hole) in 2017. NASA achieved the milestone in imaging the existence of Black Hole through Event Horizon Telescope in 2019. The image was released worldwide on 10 April 2019. The image made a turning point in understanding the evolution of Universe as well as black holes.

Black Hole Location and Distance:

     The super massive black hole is found at the center of Messier object Messier 87 (shortly called as M87) which is nothing but a elliptical galaxy located at 55 million light years away from our earth. The mass of the black hole is estimated to be 6.5 billion times the mass of our Sun. The black hole has been monitored and spontaneously imaged by other observatories and ground based telescopes to observe the mysterious cycle of brightening and dimming of light. NASA other telescopes were Chandra, NuSTAR, Swift, Fermi and an experiment on-board ISS (International Space Station) called NICER - Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Experiment. The black hole was looked at the center of our own galaxy Milky way.


Image: NASA, Event Horizon Telescope

Tags: New Black Hole Imaged | Space Updates | Fornax Space Missions

Monday, March 4, 2019

Top Five Historic Mars Landing Attempts

1-First Landing Attempt

World’s first ever lander attempt embarked by Soviet Union (Mars 2Mv-3 No.1). The lander was launched as a part of Soviet Mars Program in direction to touch the Red planet and labeled under Mars-Venus type of spacecraft. It is considered as fourth heaviest lander in the history of lander missions having 890 kilograms of mass. But as a consequence of launch vehicle malfunction, the lander never left low earth orbit and decayed from the next day of its launch. Some articles delineate that debris of this lander remained in LEO till 19 January 1963.

2-First artificial object on Mars

Mars 2 was the first human made object to touch the red planet. It was second landing attempt made by Russians as well as third heaviest lander having a mass of 1210 kilograms. One of the most incredible part of the mission is it carried a small 4.5 kilogram of Prop-M Rover that is far apart technology to think in 1970s. However, the lander made excellent entry into the Mars atmosphere and encountered module malfunction that results steep dive and crash into the surface. The small rover never had a chance to deploy.

3-First Successful Lander on Mars

Viking-1 – the most remarkable historic landing performed by Viking lander demonstrating the technological excellence near Chryse Planitia. The prime aim of the lander is to search for life and performing biological experiments on the Martian surface. This was the first U.S lander mission attempted towards Mars. Most interesting fact about Viking landers were, since its landing all the current landers employs Viking era technology for soft-landing. However the tests, the result declared negative.

4-Second Heaviest Lander

In the antiquity of lander attempts, second heaviest lander is Phobos landers strived towards Martian moon (Phobos-2600 kilograms) focusing to explore Martian moons and interplanetary environment between the Earth and Mars. But in Mars transit, both the landers encountered communication issue. As a consequence the mission endured unsuccessful.  

5-Heaviest Lander Mission

Mars 96 – top heaviest Mars lander having mass of 3159 kilograms launched as a part of Soviet Mars Program to investigate Mars. But the launcher malfunction made the spacecraft to strand in LEO and ultimately it destroyed in orbit during re-entry. Most interesting fact about this mission is, it carried 44 international instruments onboard and a surface station with small penetrator. It is considered as the first lander to carry more number of instruments.

Tags: Top Five Historic Mars Landing Attempts | Space Facts | Fornax Space Missions

Sunday, March 3, 2019

NASA - SPACEX Collaborative Dragon Demo Mission

With collaboration of NASA, Spacex launched its first private crew demonstration spacecraft "Dragon". The launch was successful from the historic apollo launch pad on board Falcon 9 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

The launch took place as a part of Commercial Crew Program that established to design and test numerous infinite capabilities of new system. It will soon contribute the US nation in returning the astronauts and cosmonauts to moon as well as Mars (the new destination).

One of the most remarkable part of the space revolution is, the credit goes to the private firm SpaceX which established in 2002. Within 17 years it had reached a far distance in space and rocketry sciences due to its spontaneous hard work, dedication and sacrifice of spacex members.

The NASA is doing great with partnerships from private as well as public firms. Within few decades it is estimated that United States will soon reach Mars and will establish a beautiful colony there.

Platform to know more about Commercial Crew Program

Image Credit: NASA

Tags: SpaceX Dragon Demo Flight | Launch Updates | Fornax Space Missions

Saturday, March 2, 2019

Spaceship - Mission to Mars | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Spaceship - Mission to Mars

Description: An illustration of Mission to Mars architecture by Dofresh

Image Source :

Image Credit: Deviant Art

Friday, March 1, 2019

Hubble Space Telescope | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Hubble Space Telescope

Image Source : NASA/ESA

Image Credit: NASA /ESA

Image Source: NASA Official Site

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Red Planet Weather Report Live

One of the greatest achievement in the human history "Live weather report from other planet" and that is Mars-The Red Planet. The achievement has been made by National Aeronautics and Space Administration's InSight Mars Lander. Technologically advanced Robot "InSight" made successful landing on 26 November 2018 near Elysium Planitia. 

The lander intended to study the interior of Mars including the geologic process and the evolution of the red planet. It is considered as the first spacecraft ever in the history of robotic exploration to record live weather from other planet.

The live weather can be seen at NASA InSight Weather

Credit: Image Credit - NASA

Tags: InSight Weather Live | Space Updates | Fornax Space Missions

Lost in Space | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Lost in Space - Mars TV Series Image

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Thursday, February 14, 2019

Opportunity Rover Status Update 2019 - Mission Ends

Opportunity Rover        Image Credit: NASA
  • One of the longest Rover "Opportunity" fell silent.
  • 1000 of new commands sent to re-establish communication.
  • Achieved New Records and found drinkable water on Mars.
  • A New type of rock  "Hematite" discovered on red planet.
Longest operated robotic rover on any other planet "Opportunity Rover" fall silent after a severe Mars-dust storm blanketed the rover's solar panel avoiding power generation. That ultimately affected the communication with the ground controllers. Opportunity and its twin Spirit launched 15 years before and intended to characterize the sediments of rocks and soil for 90 days program. But the effective technology made the rover to survive and explore Mars for a period of 15 years.

After its silence, NASA's ground attempted nearly thousands of commands to woke the rover and establish communication that endured useless. NASA's Space Flight Operation facility at Jet Propulsion Laboratory received the last communication on 10 June 2018. During the operation on Mars, Opportunity had traveled nearly 45 kilometers exploring and imaging the red planet. However the mission end, it serve as a future path for future Mars lander or rover missions. 

Most of the raw images and colored images transmitted by Opportunity can be located at Official Opportunity Website. It had made a tremendous contribution to the society of Mars exploration mission and forthcoming Mars generation. 

Highlights of the Mission (Achievement)
  • Traveled around 45 kilometers on the surface
  • Returned 217,000 images 15 (360 degree panoramas)
  • Analyzed 52 rock samples and 72 additional samples
  • Found Hematite that forms water
  • Discovered drinkable water at Endeavor Crater 

Vast Galaxy | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Vast Galaxy

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Friday, February 1, 2019

Scientists spotted a new black hole - 10,000 light years away


  • Scientists spotted a new Black Hole
  • Black hole was detected by NICER aboard International Space Station
  • Monitored by University of Maryland
  • The black hole is about 10,000 light years away from our earth
     NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) aboard International Space Station have discovered a new black hole using X-ray light. The discovery was made possible using NICER (NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer). The newly discovered black hole was named as MAXI J1820+070. It is not a real star but consumed from a companion star. 

   The tremendous discovery was made by astrphysicists from University of  Maryland, College Park and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center located in Greenbelt, Maryland. A paper describing findings of black hole is published in nature journal and can be located at

To Know more about this black hole

Thursday, January 31, 2019

The Aurora Space Station | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: The Aurora Space Station

Description: United States future space station "Aurora"

Image Source :

Image Credit: Human Mars

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Stainless Steel Big Falcon Rocket | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Stainless Steel Big Falcon Rocket

Description: Elon Musk and Spacex concept of stainless steel BFR lifting-off from launch pad

Image Source :

Image Credit: Human Mars

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Alpha Mars Base with Starship | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Alpha Mars Base with Starship

Description: Elon Musk and Spacex concept of establishing Mars Base Alpha with stainless steel Starship.

Image Source :

Image Credit: Human Mars

Saturday, January 26, 2019

ISRO PSLV-C44 Launch with Microsat-R | Kalamsat-1

PSLV-C44 lift-off from SDSC, Sriharikota

  • ISRO launched its 46th flight from SDSC
  • Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C44) carried Microsat-R and Kalamsat-1

India launched their Microsat-R and Kalamsat-V2 satellites onboard Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C44) on 24 January 2019 at 23:37 Hours Indian Standard Time (IST). The launch vehicle lifted-off from ISRO's first launch pad Satish Dhawan Space Center SHAR, Sriharikota.

It is assigned as 46th flight. Immediately after 13 minutes and 26 seconds into the flight, PSLV successfully injected the spacecraft into intended orbit. Along with ISRO's mission, one more small satellite called Kalamsat-V2 - a student satellite was also launched to use PS4 orbital platform.

NASA's Spaceship - Discovery Program | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: NASA's Spaceship - Discovery Program

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Friday, January 25, 2019

Spacex concept of Mars Base | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Spacex concept of Mars Base

Description: Elon Musk and Spacex concept of establishing Mars Base by 2022 and further.

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Tags:  Spacex concept of Mars Base | Picture of the Day | Fornax Space Missions

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Mars Base | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Mars Base by Bryan

Description: Imaginary concept of Mars Base designed by Bryan

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Falcon Heavy Launch | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Falcon Heavy Launch Vehicle

Description: Spacex Falcon Heavy launch 

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Boeing Phantom Launch Vehicle | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Boeing Phantom Launch Vehicle

Description:  Imaginary concept of Boeing launch vehicle

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Monday, January 21, 2019

Aurora Space Station | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Aurora Space Station

Description:  New Space Station made by NASA using Its Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Gaganyaan - Indian Manned Spaceflight

Human Class Mars Mission

  • After Spacex - ISRO planned to study and design prototype for vertical landing
  • ISRO aimed to make two stage vertical landing rockets
  • Vertical Landing Spaceship will be used for Gaganyaan Mission
  • Gaganyaan - First manned mission to the space
Gaganyaan - First Human misison of India

       ISRO announced to send humans by 2020-2022. The human class space mission was termed as "GAGANYAAN" and several research proposals and designs were collected from various research institutes around India that portrays the mission plan for human mission. Despite of having sufficient technologies, India aims to use the full mission in obtaining and gaining research objectives. 

    During the first orbital crew test, ISRO aims to send their indigenous robots (Artificial Intelligence) to do experiments like humans. The robots will have capability to do experiments like humans and can do all other activities of human. 

    In upcoming week, ISRO will assign and finalize the complete mission structure for the first human spaceflight. It has mobilized selection committee for deeper investigation and selection process of such mission proposals form various institutes of India. It has announced that within 2-3 weeks, Indian Space Research Organisation will finalize the mission.

Credit: ISRO

Alien Covenant Spaceship | Picture of the Day

Alien Covenant Spaceship

Picture of the Day: Alien Covenant Spaceship 

Description:  Image of spaceship taken from movie "Alien Covenant"

Image Source :

Image Credit: Wallpapershome

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Mars 1M No.2 - Marsnik 2

Mars 1M No.2 Spacecraft

Title                       Mars 1M No.2
Author                   Malaya Kumar Biswal M
Publication Date  01 January 2019
Document ID        Not Assigned
Category               Spacecraft Data | Mars
Document Type    Technical Information & Introduction
License                 Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Notes                    This document describes about the spacecraft's mission overview, technical information and failure report. Get full information by downloading the pdf (from the given link below)
Abstract               Mars 1M No.2 flyby was the second spacecraft of Russian Federal Space Agency launched in direction towards Mars. It categorized under “Marsnik” which includes Mars 1M. No.1 and No.2. The term Marsnik originated from combination of Mars and Sputnik. It was launched after four days of its sister spacecraft (1M. No.1). It was deliberated to conduct Mars flyby and study the planet from trajectory path.

Download            Mars 1M No.1.PDF (232 KB) | Citation | Official Article link

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Spacecraft Fact Sheets

Fact Sheet:

     A fact sheet provides an overview of the mission. This includes manufacturer, launch, cost of the spacecraft, mission objectives, planned objectives, achievements, spacecraft sub-systems, technical details, mission partners, mission description, project team etc.. After every space missions NASA releases fact sheets on their official site in order to improve the understanding and interest in space exploration among space enthusiasts.

Download Fact Sheets:

Credits: Fact Sheet | NASA