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SpaceX Future Concept of Landed Spaceships (Big Falcon Rocket) on Mars


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Artist Concept of Moon Base Alpha led by Elon Musk (SpaceX)


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


Elon Musk Concept of Mars Base with Big BFR Rockets


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Thursday, February 8, 2018

Falcon Heavy

Falcon Heavy standing on launch pad
     Falcon Heavy is a giant reusable heavy launch vehicle designed and manufactured by Elon Musk's SpaceX. Its two Falcon-9 first stages and one Falcon-9 rocket makes it a powerful rocket.  It has variable payload lift capability which increases from 63,800 kilograms to Low Earth Orbit. It became world's fourth highest capacity rocket built ever after the Saturn-V and Energia rockets. It was designed to carry humans into space including Moon.

First Successful Launch:

     SpaceX made a history by launching its first heavy vehicle on 6 February 2018 at 3:45 pm according to European Standard Time. It carried a dummy payload "Roadster". It design and manufacture struggling started from September 2005, finally its made its achievement on Feb 6,2018.  It was developed with complete private capital somewhat around $500 million USD dollars and no government financial support was provided from the government.


     The primary design is the centered rocket is complete Falcon-9 and it side boosters are first stages of Falcon-9 rocket. Elon Musk gave a talk in Mars Society for launch of Falcon type rockets in around 2013 and it finally got success in 2018. 

Falcon Heavy propelling into space

First Flight:

     Flight-1 - It was carried on 6 February 2018 at 20:45 UTC by SpaceX. It carried Spacex's Roadster as payload and the mission outcome was success. It lifted successfully from the ground and then the Roadster was sent to Trans-Mars Injection heliocentric orbit. Then its both side boosters landed successfully and the two centered boosters suffered a engine failure, re-entered and struck the ocean damaging the engines. (Drone ship).

Future Flight:

     SpaceX aimed to make its next launch in June 2018 carrying some nanosatellites, deep space atomic clocks, and cosmic satellites.

Spacex's Falcon Heavy Test Flight:


Image Credit : Space-X 

Sunday, February 4, 2018

What is Satellite?

What is Satellite:

     A satellite is a artificial or man made object injected into space for particular applications. (Applications such as weather monitoring, astronomical observation, resource satellites, space explorations..,). The satellite is injected at a certain height from the earth surface which we call orbit. Man-made satellites are also called artificial satellites, this is because to distinguish from natural satellite (Earth's Moon).

Satellite orbiting Earth

What is difference between natural and artificial satellite?

Natural Satellite : A natural satellite is a astronomical object orbiting around particular planet. Example: The Moon which orbits around our earth is.

Artificial Satellite:  Artificial satellite is a human made object commanded or programmed to orbit around any astronomical object. Example: Mangalyaan Satellite around planet Mars and Chandrayaan-1 around Moon.

First Satellites of Nations in 20th Century:
  1. Sputnik-1              Soviet Union
  2. Explorer-1             United States
  3. Asterix                   France
  4. Osumi                    Japan
  5. Dong Fang Hong  China
  6. Prospero                United Kingdom
  7. Rohini                    India
  8. Ofeq-1                    Israel
  9. Kosmos 2175         Russia
  10. Strela                     Ukraine
First Satellites of Nations after 20th Century:
  1. Omid                                           Iran
  2. Kwangmyongsong 3 Unit-2      North Korea
  3. Dove Pioneer, Lemur-2 (X2)     New Zealand
Types of Artificial Satellite:
  • Earth observation satellites
  • Navigational satellites
  • Communication satellites
  • Astronomical satellites
  • Biosatellites
  • Killer Satellites
  • Crewed satellites (Spaceships)
  • Nanosatellites
  • Recovery satellites
  • Reconnaissance satellites
  • Weather satellites
  • Deep space satellites
  • Tether satellites
  • Space stations
Satellite Subsystem:
    • Structural system
    • Telemetry system
    • Power system
    • Thermal control system
    • Attitude control system
    • Payloads
    • Thruster control system
Origin of artificial satellites:

     In history of science, great scientist Sir.Issac Newton first published a paper on "Possibility of an artificial satellite". Similarly, in 1879 Edward Everett Hale depicted a satellite in his frictional writing. Later in 1903 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky mentioned satellite in his published paper "Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices"

Sputnik-1 First satellite in space 1957

     The space exploration began with the first successful launch of Sputnik-1 satellite of Soviet Union in 1957. It operated for 21 days in orbit and it's mission life ended in 26th October 1957. After the successful launch of Sputnik-1, many country started to launch their own satellites into space. Some of the first satellites of the nations are mentioned above.

Frequently asked questions:

How many satellites have been launched since launch of earth's first satellite?

     As per 2013 estimate by "Global experts Agree Action Needed on Space Debris" European Space Agency, more than 6,600 satellites from 40 countries around world have been launched. Out of these 6,600 only 1000 satellites were in operational.

Which is the oldest satellite in space?

     According to the statement of Wikipedia, Vanguard-1 is the oldest satellite in space, which is still orbiting the earth with its rocket's upper stage. It deactivated in 1964.

How many satellites are currently in active?

     As listed by Goddard Space Flight Center there are 2,271 satellites are currently active in orbit. Of these 1,324 satellites were from Soviet Russia and 658 satellites from United States of America.

Can we see satellites from Earth?

     Yes, we can see satellites from earth in the night sky when they pass overhead at a particular height. It can be seen at a place where there is no light and cloud free sky. It will look like a star moving across the sky. (Note: blinking of moving light is not star but a plane)

Which country has most satellites in space?

     Russia has 1,324 satellites, United States has 658 satellites, China has 177 satellites and Japan has 56 satellites. (Source: World Atlas)

How many satellites are owned by Google?

     As far 13 satellites are owned by Google and they are called GeoEye Satellites.

How much does it cost to built and launch a satellite?

     To built a satellite, it costs from $50 dollars to $500 million dollars. For launching it costs about $8000 dollars. (approximately)

Friday, February 2, 2018

Pegasus Galaxy

NGC 7331 or Pegasus Galaxy
    New General Catalogue 7331 or Pegasus is otherwise called Caldwell 30. It is a unbarred spiral galaxy located at a distance of 40 million light-years away from our earth. It was first discovered by famous astronomer William Herschel in the year 1784. It is considered as one of the brightest member among the NGC 7331 group of galaxies. 

     The Pegasus is considered as twin sister of our Milkyway galaxy because of similar size and structure. It has a central bulge which is rotating in the opposite direction to the rest of the disk. There is a supernova called SN 1959D was the first supernova discovered and identified within this galaxy (Pegasus). The supernova was discovered by Milton Humason and H.S Gates at Palomar Observatory. Most recent discovered supernovae are SN 2013bu and SN 2014C. This galaxy was studied by visible and infrared images. The confirmation of similar size of Milkway and Pegasus was confirmed after 2000.  The approx size of the galaxy is about 120,000 light year.

This image was taken by Vicent Peris at Calar Obervatory in southern spain

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Helix Nebula

Helix Nebula

About Nebula:

     The Helix nebula is also known as New General Catalogue 7293. It is a planetary nebula which can be located in the constellation of Aquarius in the night sky and it is the nearest nebula to our earth. It was first discovered by famous astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding in 1824 (approx). It's estimated distance from earth is about 700 light year and it looks like a Cat's eye. The physical characteristics of this nebula is similar to the Dumbbell Nebula. Due to the Cat eye appearance, sometimes it is referred to as the Eye of God. 

Location and Age:

The Helix nebula is located in the Aquarius constellation and it lies about 700 light years away from our earth which spans at a rate of 0.8 parsecs. Scientist estimated the current age of the nebula is about 10,600 +2300 or -1200 years with a expansion rate of 31 km per second.

Physical Structure:

NGC 7293
     The structure of the helix nebula is prolate spheroid and it was estimated that the expansion would have occurred in past 6,560 years and 12,100 years for the expansion of inner disk. Data from the spectroscopic studies reveal that the outer ring expansion rate is 40 km per second and the inner disk expansion rate is 32 km per second. It has many cometary knots and it was the first nebulae discovered to contain this. There are more than 20,000 cometary knots are estimated to be in the Helix. The temperature range increases from outer disk to the inner disk at the rate of 900 Kelvin to 1800 Kelvin.

Image Credit : NASA's Hubble Space Telescope
Text Credit : Wiki and Team Fornax

Mission to Mars Full Movie

Mission to Mars Full Movie 
About Movie:

     Mission to Mars is a American movie directed by Brian De Palma and the original screen play was written by three authors, they were Jim Thomas, John Thomas and Graham Yost. It describes a outer imagination and the exploration & colonization of Mars in 2020. They makes a rescue mission to save the astronauts from the surface of Mars.

Movie Overview:

Movie Name          : Mission To Mars
Directed by           : Brian De Palma
Produced by         : Tom Jacobson
Production            : Touchstone pictures & Spyglass entertaintment
Music                     : Ennio Morricone
Cinematography   : Stephen H. Burum
Released                : 10 March 2000
Duration                 : 114 minutes
Country of origin   : United States
Language               : English
Total Budget          : 100 million dollars


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