Read more:


SpaceX Future Concept of Landed Spaceships (Big Falcon Rocket) on Mars


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Artist Concept of Moon Base Alpha led by Elon Musk (SpaceX)


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


Elon Musk Concept of Mars Base with Big BFR Rockets


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Saturday, December 29, 2018

Jupiter with its shade of moon "Ganymede"

Picture of the Day: Jupiter with its shade of moon "Ganymede"

Description:  Shadow of Ganymede moon on Jupiter near great red spot

Image Source :

Image Credit: Hubble Space Telescope | NASA | ESA

Gaganyaan - India's First Human Spaceflight Programme

Gaganyaan Mission - Indian Human Mission to Space


  • Indian Cabinet accepted Gaganyaan mission worth 10,000 crore to send 3 astronauts for 7 days
  • India's First human mission (crewed orbital spaceflight)
  • Fourth nation to have Human Spaceflight Programme
About Gaganyaan:

     Gaganyaan is an crewed orbital spaceflight vehicle intended to spent 7 days in space with 3 Indian astronauts and be the first flight carrying astronauts from India. Later it will be upgraded to facilitate docking facility with other spaceflight vehicle. The dry mass of the vehicle is estimated to be 3700 kilograms approximately.

     The crewed vehicle is pretended to be launched with India's heaviest launch vehicle (GSLV-Mark-III) full formed as Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle. ISRO planned to carry out the spaceflight in near 2021 or 2022. The space vehicle is designed and manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and its first experimental demonstration flight tested on 18 December 2014.

Relevant Materials for Studies:

Sunday, December 23, 2018

Saturn's Auroras | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Saturn's Auroras 

Description:  Aurora on top of planet Saturn captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope

Image Source :

Image Credit: Hubble Space Telescope | NASA | ESA

Saturday, December 22, 2018

Jupiter-Ganymede Image | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Image of Jupiter with shadow of its moon "Ganymede" 

Description:  Image captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope showing planet Jupiter with shadow of its one of the moon "Ganymede"

Image Source :

Image Credit: Hubble Space Telescope | NASA | ESA

Friday, December 21, 2018

Brightest Comet of 2018

Comet 46P / Wirtanen             Image Credit: NASA | Hubble Space Telescope


  • NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured 46P/Wirtanen Comet
  • Brightest comet of 2018 looking bluish in color
  • The image was captured when the comet is at 12 million kilometers away from earth
  • Image was taken by Hubble's Wide Field Camera-3

     Previously NASA announced an opportunity to see a comet this year. Its now updated and NASA captured the image of brightest comet of the year 2018. The comet was widely called 46P/Wirtanen. The image was captured by Hubble's Wide Field Camera-3 when the comet is at 12 million kilometers away from our earth. The image depicts its fuzzy nucleus at the center and glow from comet's coma. The coma is mostly consisted of cloud of gas. The comet was ejected during the pass and heating of the Sun.

      The comet is normally not accessible from Earth. But the scientists are trying to find that, how the comet is ejecting gas out of the nucleus. Studies are carried out in detail by the researchers from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. Image portrayed that the coma is chemically altered by the light and radiation the from sun.

Get More Information about the Comet 46P/ Wirtanen Comet

High Resolution Image | Comet 46P/Wirtanen | Picture of the Day

High Resolution Image of Comet 46P/Wirtanen Captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope  Image Credit : NASA | Hubble Space Telescope

Picture of the Day: Comet 46P/ Wirtanen

Description:  Brightest comet of 2018 captured by wide field camera onboard Hubble Space Telescope

Image Source :

Image Credit: Hubble Space Telescope | NASA | ESA

Thursday, December 20, 2018

Cosmic Caterpillar | Picture of the Day

Image of a gas nebula named Cosmic Caterpillar - OPO1335A

Picture of the Day: Cosmic Caterpillar 

Description:  Image of a cosmic caterpillar (officially gas nebula) taken by hubble space telescope. The designated ID of this image in OPO1335A. Officially image taken from

Image Source :

Image Credit: Hubble Space Telescope | NASA | ESA

New Horizons to flyby Ultima Thule - Kuiper Belt

New Horizons near Ultima Thule - Artist conceptual diagram


  • NASA's New Horizons space probe will encounter Kuiper Belt on 01 Jan 2019
  • Event will be broadcasted live through NASA media (described below)
  • It will encounter a object named as "Ultima Thule"
20 December 2019: New Horizons new encounter:

           NASA's New Horizons probe will encounter a Kuiper belt object nicknamed as "Ultima Thule" on 01 January 2019. The farthest spacecraft flyby in history. The orbital maneuvers will take place from 29 December 2018 to 04 January 2019. The flyby will be controlled and monitored by John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory located in Laurel, Maryland.

          New Horizons aimed to visit Kuiper belt - the third belt of our solar system containing small and infinite number of small objects and asteroids. The belt forms a ring around the sun beyond dwarf planet pluto. It also contains gigantic icy bodies and mysterious small objects.

To know more about Ultima Thule and Kuiper Belt

Image Credit: New Horizon | NASA

Image Source:

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

ISRO launched its 39th communication satellite GSAT-7A

GSLV-F11 standing on second launch pad SDSC, Sriharikota

  • India launched its 13th heaviest launch vehicle GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)
  • The rocket delivered 39th Indian Communication Satellite
  • GSLV-F11 is Fourth Generation indigenous rocket with three stages 
On 19 December 2018, Indian Space Research Organisation shortly called ISRO launched its 39th communication satellite (GSAT-7A) onboard GSLV-F11 rocket from second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SHAR), Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The launch was categorized under 13th heaviest flight of Geosynchronous Satellite launch vehicle and it also 7th flight with indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage. The total lift-off (launch) mass was around 2250 kilograms including GSAT-7A. 


           The satellite was built and manufactured by ISRO for providing better communication over the Indian region.

Image Credit : Indian Space Research Organisation | ISRO

Image Source :

Tags : ISRO GSLV Launch | Launch Updates | Fornax Space Missions

SpaceX launches spy satellite

          Spacex going to launch United States first national security mission satellite - spy satellite for military applications. This navigation and military application satellite was scheduled to launch earlier. But the launch was triggered by onboard SpaceX's rocket (Falcon-9) computer.

This is a Global Positioning Satellite estimated cost around $500 million USD dollars. It was manufactured by Lockheed Martin Space Systems. The satellite will be carried out by Space X's Falcon 9 rocket on Wednesday morning local time.

NASA Returns to Moon and Mars


  • NASA recruited new administrator "Jim Bridenstine"
  • NASA begins its plans to return to Moon and Mars 
  • Six Decades of Space Exploration
  • Had achieved tremendous development in aviation and space science
New NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine and deputy administrator Jim Morhard focused to begin their work on sending humans back to Moon and to Mars. NASA has been continuously inspiring and creating new achievements and accomplishments in space programs.

President Eisenhower initiated the space age in America followed by President Kennedy to send humans to Moon. Following this, in 2018 - NASA celebrated its 60th Anniversary in space exploration and technology achievements (i.e., six decades of space exploration).

New President Jim Bridenstine strongly promised to return to Moon and go to Mars. NASA celebrated this great legacy on 18 December 2018.

Some of the ongoing mission of NASA - Solar System and beyond:
  • Parker Solar Probe
  • OSIRIS-REx Mission
  • Voyager 1 & 2 ( Exploring beyond solar system)
  • Hubble Space Telescope
  • Kepler Space Telescope
  • Dawn Mission
  • James Webb Space Telescope
  • NASA's Galileo Space Probe
  • Juno Mission to Jupiter
  • New Horizons beyond Pluto
  • Curiosity
  • InSight
For More information visit here

Tags: NASA Return to Moon | Space Updates | Fornax Space Missions

InSight captured by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Image captured my HiRISE onboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on 11 Dec 2018

  • InSight successful landing images transmitted by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)
  • Image Shows landing site and disposed hardwares
  • Looks Greenish color from outer space (i.e., from Mars orbit)

     On 26 November 2018, NASA's Insight Mars lander touched down at Mars. Since that day, no images of landing marscraft was taken from Mars orbit. Only self panoramic view of Mars lander is obtained by NASA. Now, InSight team pointed the landing site of InSight with the help of HiRISE ( a onboard instrument mounted upon Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)

     It portrays the image of lander, heat shield, parachute. One image was captured on 06 December 2018 and another on 11 December 2018. They were about 100 feet away from each other found in the region of Elysium Planitia - the flat lava plains selected earlier for InSight landing site.

     On the day of InSight landing, MRO was not in position to take good images of lander. Later period, the team from University of Arizona took the images of Insight landing site with the help of  HiRISE payload onboard MRO.

Image Source and Credit:

Tags: InSight by MRO | Space Updates | Fornax Space Missions

Monday, December 17, 2018

SpaceX Falcon 9 Vandenberg | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Space-X Falcon-9 Standing on the launch pad - Vandenburg

Description:  Falcon 9 - Elon Musk Spacex's powerful rocket before launch, standing on the launch pad at Vandenberg.

Image Source :

Image Credit: Elon Musk | Space-X

Sunday, December 16, 2018

InSight Mars Lander | Picture of the Day | InSight Lander by Charlie Burgess

InSight Lander by Charlie Burgess
Picture of the Day: InSight Mars Lander by Charlie Burgess

Description:  NASA's Insight lander standing on Mars, the art by made by Charlie Burgess

Image Source :

Image Credit: Charlie Burgess |

Saturday, December 15, 2018

Watch comet 46P approaching earth tomorrow 16 December 2018

Comet 46P

  • Comet 46P/Wirtanen approaching earth on 16 December 2018
  • The comet appears once in 5.4 years
  • The comet can be seen through our naked eye

     NASA's center for Near-Earth Object Studies situated at Jet Propulsion Laboratory had announced an opportunity to see a comet named "46P/Wirtanen" on 16 December 2018.It is considered as one of the most closest flyby comets to reach earth in 70 years. Scientist say that it can be seen through naked eye without telescope.

The closest approach is about 11.4 million kilometers, it is one of the new and rare comet to come near earth as compared to past centuries stated by Paul Chodas manager at NEO, Center, JPL, Pasadena, California. The comet is visible through large seized telescopes and predicted to see with our naked eye.


     The comet named Wirtanen after the astronomer Carl Wirtanen who discovered this comet in 1948 at Lick Observatory at Hamilton in Santa Clara, California. The time period of the comet is 5.4 years to make visit to our solar system. The comet will look like it is located in the constellation of Taurus.

NASA's Infrared Telescope located in Hawaii is expected to study and conduct deep scientific observation of the comet. Most likely to study the hydrologic properties.

Observation and Tracking of Comet by various science instruments and observatories include

  • Goldstone Solar System Radar at California
  • NASA Infrared Telescope at Hawaii
  • Hubble Space Telescope
  • Chandra X-Ray Observatory
  • Swift and Spitzer Space Telescopes
  • Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)
  • Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite
More Information at 46P-NASA

Image Credit : NASA

Thursday, December 13, 2018

Mars One Spaceship departing from LEO | Picture of the Day

Picture of the Day: Mars One Spaceship - Mars Crewed Mission

Description:  Dutch startup for establishing colony on Mars -  Mars One spaceship departing towards Mars.

Image Source :

Image Credit: Mars One

Tags: Mars One Spaceship| Picture of the Day | Fornax Space Missions

InSight records the first sounds of Mars

               NASA's InSight Mars lander which landed on Mars on 26 November 2018 and intended for recording and observing the geological activities and cosmic evolution of Mars. It has special instrument called "Seismometer" which recorded the "First Sound on Mars" - first ever man made object to record sounds of Mars.

             The instrument recorded the sounds of wind blowing on Mars. The sound was most similar to wind sounds on Earth. NASA released the sound worldwide public via official youtube channel " NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory". Hear the sound here below...

Image Credit: NASA | Insight

Tuesday, December 11, 2018

List of planned "Human Mars Missions" from 1952 to 2012

Artist Concept of Human Mars Missions
    Human mission to Mars have been a great challenge and dream to mankind in order to make human a multiplanetary species. The rocket scientist "Von Braun" was the first man to outline a sketch for manned mission to Mars. Depicting the plan, several space agencies portrayed many "Human mission plans since 20th century, but none of them were employed (i.e., launched or undertaken). Here are the list of crewed missions or planned Human mission to Mars from the year 1952 to 2012.

  • 1952 - Von Braun Mars 
  • 1954 - Stuhlinger Mars
  • 1956 - Von Braun Mars
  • 1958 - Martian Piloted Complex
  • 1960 - Bono Mars
  • 1960 - NASA Lewis Mars
  • 1961 - TMK-1 flyby
  • 1962 - Stuhlinger Mars
  • 1962 - TMK-2 
  • 1962 - EMPIRE - Aeronutronic
  • 1962 - EMPIRE - General Dynamics
  • 1962 - EMPIRE - Lockheed
  • 1962 - TRW Mars Expedition
  • 1963 - Faget Mars (Heavy)
  • 1963 - Faget Mars (Light)
  • 1963 - UMPIRE Douglas
  • 1964 - Project Deimos
  • 1965 - Douglas MORL Mars Flyby
  • 1966 - NASA NERVA - Electric Mars
  • 1966 - Korolev KK - TMK
  • 1966 - Titus FLEM
  • 1966 - Stuhlinger Mars
  • 1968 - Boeing IMIS
  • 1969 - Mars Expeditionary Complex (MEK)
  • 1969 - Von Braun Mars
  • 1971 - NASA Mars Expedition
  • 1972 - Mars in 30 Days (Ragsdale)
  • 1972 - MK-700
  • 1974 - Chelomei (MK-700 Flyby)
  • 1982 - British Interplanetary Society Mars
  • 1983 - Planetary Society of Mars Expedition
  • 1984 - Paine
  • 1985 - NASA-LANL Manned Mars Flyby
  • 1986 - NPO Energia Mars
  • 1986 - Case for Mars II
  • 1986 - NASA Ride Report
  • 1988 - NASA Mars Evolution
  • 1988 - NASA Mars Expedition
  • 1988 - NASA Phobos Expedition
  • 1989 - NASA 90 Day Study
  • 1989 - NPO Energia Mars
  • 1989 - Mars Evolution
  • 1989 - NASA Mars Expedition
  • 1991 - Mars Direct (Zubrin)
  • 1991 - STCAEM CAB
  • 1991 - STCAEM NEP
  • 1991 - STCAEM NTR
  • 1991 - STCAEM SEP
  • 1991 - NASA Synthesis Study
  • 1991 - International Space University
  • 1993 -  NASA Design Reference Mission 1.0
  • 1994 - Kurchatov Mars
  • 1996 - Zubrin Athena
  • 1997 - NASA Design Reference Mission 3
  • 1998 - NASA Dual Lander Mission
  • 1999 - Mars Society Mission
  • 2000 - Marspost
  • 2009 - Mars Design Reference Mission 5
  • 2012 - Spacex Interplanetary Transport System
  • 2013 - Inspiration Mars

Bold colored missions have time scale to achieve within 2035 to carry out Human Mars Mission. 

Tags: Human Mars Mission plans | Space Updates | Fornax Space Missions

Monday, December 10, 2018

Voyager 2 Spacecraft of NASA

Voyager 2 reaching interstellar space
Picture of the Day: Voyager 2 Spacecraft of NASA

Description: One of the most powerful deep space probe "Voyager 2" currently leaving our solar system. Second man made object to reach interstellar space.

Image Source : Voyager 2 | NASA

Image Credit: NASA

Tags: Voyager 2 Spacecraft of NASA | Picture of the Day | Fornax Space Missions

Sunday, December 9, 2018

Voyager 1 spacecraft of NASA

Voyager 1 space probe of NASA              Image Credit: NASA | Wikipedia
Picture of the Day: Voyager 1 Spacecraft of NASA

Description: One of the most powerful deep space probe "Voyager 1" currently leaving our solar system. First man made object to reach interstellar space.

Image Source : Voyager 1 | NASA

Image Credit: NASA

Tags: Voyager 1 Spacecraft of NASA | Picture of the Day | Fornax Space Missions

Friday, December 7, 2018

Orion - Multipurpose Crew Vehicle at Mars

An Image depicting Orion - Multi-purpose crew vehicle near Mars
Picture of the Day: Orion - Multipurpose Crew Vehicle at Mars

Description: An Image depicting Orion - Multi-purpose crew vehicle near Mars - manned spaceflight carried out by National Aeronautics Space Administration

Image Source : NASA | Orion

Image Credit: NASA

Tags: Orion - Multipurpose Crew Vehicle at Mars | Picture of the Day | Fornax Space Missions

Thursday, December 6, 2018

Open Contest to Design " Human Mars Settlement on Mars" by Mars Society

An image of open contest first page  Image : Mars Society

       Mars Society : United States, Mars Society had announced opportunity for worldwide contestants to "Design the First Human Settlement on Mars". The students and common people can take part as a single person or a group or organization in this competition. The plans and designs should be written within 20 pages in PDF format and submitted before 31 March 2019. 

     The points and awards will be granted based on the specific criterias. First three best papers and their authors will be invited to present their plans in front of Judges. Furthermore, best 20 papers will be published in website. For more information and guidelines visit The contest is open for all members worldwide and no one should write more than 20 pages in PDF format. 

About Mars Society:
      Mars Society was initiated by Dr.Robert Zubrin, formerly worked for NASA's Human Mars Mission popularly known as " Mars Direct" and "Mars Semi-Direct" of 1999. He was responsible for the invention of Mars Propellant Plant and many human Mars mission architectures. He was also famous for his best book " The Case for Mars - The plan to settle Red planet". After the rejection of Mars Direct concept by NASA due to financial estimation. He started this initiative for creating awareness about the "Human Mars Mission.

Tags: Mars Society Contest | Space Opportunities | Fornax Space Missions

GSAT-11 Successful Launch - India's Heaviest Communication Satellite

GSAT-11 Launch from Kourou, French, Guiana on 05 December 2018
     India launched its heaviest communication satellite "GSAT-11" on 5 December 2018 from Kourou launch site, French, Guiana onboard Ariane-5 VA-246. The satellite weighing 5854 kilograms. It is the heaviest satellite ever built by ISRO scientists.

     GSAT-11 is considered as pioneer in series of advanced communication satellite covering areas of India and neighbour Islands. It will be playing vital role in providing broadband communications and to demonstrate new technological applications.

     After the launch, GSAT-11 was placed in Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit and the mission control and management was undertaken by Master Control Facility located at Hassan. They will control orbital raising manoeuvres in placing in a circular geostationary orbit. The satellite is expected to work for a period of 15 Years. It is capable of producing 13.6 kW of power from earth orbit.

Know More about GSAT-11 - ISRO

Image Credit : Indian Space Research Organisation

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Dwarf Planet - Pluto

Picture of the Day: Dwarf planet - Pluto

Description: Image of Pluto portraying Icy surface and the image taken by NASA's New Horizons Space probe of New Frontiers Program.

Image Source : NASA | New Horizons | Pluto

Image Credit: NASA

Tags: Dwarf planet - Pluto | Picture of the Day | Fornax Space Missions