Read more:


SpaceX Future Concept of Landed Spaceships (Big Falcon Rocket) on Mars


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Artist Concept of Moon Base Alpha led by Elon Musk (SpaceX)


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


Elon Musk Concept of Mars Base with Big BFR Rockets


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Thursday, November 23, 2017

Cosmic Search NGC-4625

NGC 4625 Galaxy:

   This photograph was taken by NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the dwarf galaxy NGC 4625, which is about 30 million light years away in the constellation of Canes Venatici. The canes venatici is referred to as The Hunting Dogs. The Image was captured with advanced Camera for Surveys.

Astronomers looked at NGC 4625 in different wavelengths in the hope of solving this cosmic mystery. By the data from ultraviolet light, the disk of galaxy appears four times larger than one picture depicted alone. This image reveals, there are many old, young galaxies and young stars are forming in the outer region of the NGC 4625. These young stars are only around one billion years old and about 10 times younger than the stars. At first astronomers assumed that the formation of NGC 4625 was triggered by the interaction with NGC 4618.

They finally states that the NGC 4618 is causing to lose all its spiral arm of NGC 4625. The gas in the outermost regions of the dwarf galaxy NGC 4618 has been strongly affected by NGC 4525.

More Information:

Hubble Space Telescope -
National Aeronautics Space Administration -
European Space Agency -
NGC 4625 - Wikipedia-NGC 4625
NGC 4618 - Wikipedia-NGC-4618
To Know More about News - Cosmic Search for NGC 4625

Photo Credit : ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope
Text Credit : European Space Agency
News Published Date : 17th November 2017

Hubble Focus - Our Amazing Solar System - Ebook

Hubble Space Telescope - Ebook:

Hubble Focus - Our Amazing Solar System:

     Hubble Focus is a series of E-books that dive deeper into specific fields of astronomy forever changed by Hubble's explorations. The first book, Hubble Focus - Our Amazing Solar System, describes some of the remarkable observations and discoveries. Hubble's discoveries were made about in the planets, moons and smaller bodies orbiting around our Sun. Hubble had made tremendous discoveries that changed the level of understanding the universe and its evolution.


*EPUB format contains embedded videos to watch


E-book Credit : ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope
Author : National Aeronautics Space Administration

Spitzer Infrared Telescope - Ebook

Making the Invisible Visible:
A History of the Spitzer Infrared Telescope facility
Author : Renee M. Rottner

In the early 1970s, there were a few groups interested in the Infrared Space Telescope Astronomy, the field of Infrared Astronomy was only few years old, no one had ever built a infrared based space observatory. Considering the technical, political, scientific and economic uncertainties, it was not like the project SIRTF or should be dared by NASA. Spitzer Space Telescope was amazing and managing innovation over the time and in the face of uncertainty.


* EPUB contains embedded videos to watch


E-book Credit : NASA by Renee M.Rottner
E-book published date : 4th August 2017

Tags: Making the Invisible Visible | E-book Downloads | Space Downloads

The Saturn System - Ebook of Cassini


     The Cassini-Huygens mission has revolutionized the knowledge of planet Saturn. It revealed many surprising places where the possibility of life is more. It had been exploring Saturn and its rings since its arrival in 2004 to 15th September 2017. After its mission, it made a great dive and plunge into the Saturn. It had been continuously exploring over a period of 13 years, it has captured nearly about 450,000 spectacular images within the Saturn system. To Honor Cassini, This E-book was developed by NASA's Planetary Science Division | Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Lunar and Planetary Institute.


*EPUB Format contains embedded videos to watch


  • NASA's Planetary Science Division
  • NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Lunar and Planetary Institute
Tags: The Saturn System | E-book Downloads | Downloads

Cancri-55 Super Earth

Super-earth Cancri-55:

     A new exoplanet called Super-Earth 55 Cancri which is twice as big as Earth, the planet is thought to have lava flows on its surface. Data from National Aeronautics Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope revealed that the planet have stable day and night sides. One side of the planet is faced to the Sun and it is very close to its star. Scientists speculated that lava would flow freely in lakes on the starlit side and solidified on the face. These solidified lava reflects radiation from its sun and overall temperature observed from the sun. After a deep analysis, scientists predict that the planet Cancri may have atmosphere like earth, but they are very thick. Some high point of lava is directly linked to the space making a hotspot where the temperature is very much high. 

After analysis of lava flow on the planet, Scientists Renyu Hu published a paper in The Astronomical Journal. To know more about this planet. Click here.

Exo-planet Cancri-55 Details:

Name of the planet : Cancri-55
Type of planet : Exoplanet
Temperature : 2400 degrees to 2600 degrees
Atmosphere Composition : Nitrogen | Water | Oxygen  (Predicted)
Observation Period : 15th June 2013 to 15th July 2013
Observed by : NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope

More Information:

Official Website - Spitzer Space Telescope -
NASA Spitzer Space Telescope -


The Astronomical Journal -
Photo Credit : Artists of NASA
Text Credit : Elizabeth Landau | NASA
News Published Date : 17th November 2017

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Journals on Mars Geology

Journals on Mars Geology

Name of the Journal : Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera
Author : Michael C. Malin | Kenneth S. Edgett
Published Date : 1st October 2001
Publisher : Wiley
Read this Journal :
Download this Journal :

Name of the Journal : Volcanic geology of Hadriaca Patera and the Eastern Hellas Region of Mars
Author : David A. Crown | Ronald Greeley
Published Date : 25th February 1993
Publisher : Wiley
Read this Journal :
Download this Journal :

Name of the Journal : Mariner 9 Preliminary Report on Mars Geology
Author : J.F McCauley | M.H Carr | J.A Cutts | W.K Hartmann | D.J Milton | R.P Sharp | D.E Wilhelms
Published Date : 26th October 2002
Publisher : Science Direct
Read this journal online :
Download this journal PDF : Preliminary data

Name of the Journal : Hydrated Silicate Minerals on Mars observed by the MRO
Author : John F. Mustard | S.L. Murchie | M.Wolff
Published Date : 16th July 2008
Publisher : Nature
Read this article online :
Download this article :

Name of the Journal : The Mars Observer laser altimeter investigation
Author : M.T Zuber | D.E. Smith | S.C. Solomon | D.O. Muhleman | J.W. Head | J.B Garvin | J.B Abshire | J.L. Bufton
Published Date : 25th May 1992
Publisher : Wiley
Read this article online :
Download this article PDF : The Mars Observer laser altimeter investigation.pdf

    Some of the important journals for Mars Geologic Features.

Sand Flow on Mars - MRO Updates

Sand Flow On Mars:

     Previously scientists reported that the sign of flow may be the presence of water in the past, but it is confirmed that the flow is just sand. The sand flows from top of the hill towards down. New Image from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals the flow of sand. The finding is published in the Journal of Nature Geo-Science Argue against the presence of enough liquid water for microbial life to thrive at these sites. Reporters propose the possibilities like the presence of small amount of water, indicated by the detection of hydrated salts at some of the flows.

More Information ---- Sand Flow on Mars

  Currently, there are eight missions active in exploring Mars. They are

  1. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter
  2. MAVEN
  3. Mars Orbiter Mission - Mangalyaan
  4. Curiosity Rover
  5. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
  6. Opportunity Rover
  7. Mars Express
  8. Mars Odyssey

   Of these missions, Curiosity Rover & Opportunity Rover are deeply analyzing the soil of Mars by drilling and testing practices on the Martian Surface. Here are some of links which can help you to get raw images of Curiosity and Opportunity Rover

Curiosity Rover Website     -

The Vasimr Rocket

Download this paper : The Vasimr Rocket by Franklin R.Chang Diaz [PDF]

Paper Information:

Name of the Journal : The Vasimr Rocket
Journal Written By : Franklin R.Chang Diaz
Published by : Scientific American
Info : Volume 283 No.5  on November 2000
Pages : Pages from 90 to 97
No. of. Pages : 08 pages
Website :

Related Links:

Download Referrence Papers for Mars and Mars Missions at

Tags : The Vasimr Rocket | Research Paper | Scientific American

Credits: Paper Credit - Franklin R.Chang Diaz
Journal Credit - Scientific American

Quirky 45P Comet

Comet 45P:

        NASA observed a rare comet called Quirky 45P, which crossed in early 2017. After a deep study about the comet, it revealed that the ice contained in the comet is very similar to the icy moons of Jupiter planet. This comet is very identical not like any comets which visited our Solar System. Astronomers found nine type of gases which releasing out from the comet. Most of the outlet contains amino acids and sugar molecules. Organic molecules also, these type of organic materials was not found in the Jupiter's Moon.

     This comet 45P officially belongs to the Jupiter's family, but most of the comets comes from Oort Cloud. This comet orbits our Sun every seven years.It also has some traces of Carbon dioxide and Methane. To identify ices in the native region of Infrared Spectrum, astronomers conducted iSHELL high resolution spectrograph recently installed at IRTF.

     Astronomers team are now interested in producing the typical results among the similar comets. Comet 45P was first among the five short comets available for the study between 2017 and 2018. 

Short Period Comets:
         The five short comets were

  1. Comets 2P | Encke
  2. 41P | Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak
  3. 21P | Giacobini-Zinner
  4. 46P | Wirtanen
  5. Comet 45P
   The comet 45P is expected to remain within 16 million kilometers of Earth throughout most of the December 2018.This research is very useful in understanding the molecular species existing in the nuclei of Jovian-family comets.

    After the study of Comet 45P, they wished to publish from iSHELL, which was built through a partnership between NSF the University of Hawaii. This will be the first results to come of many iSHELL.

More Information:

NASA's IRTF Site - NASA's IRTF Website
Info about more comets - Comets by NASA
Offcial News Site of 45P -  Quirky Comet 45P

Photo - National Aeronautics Space Administration
Text - Elizabeth Zubritsky of NASA
News Published Date : 22 November 2017

Tags : Comets | Space Updates | Fornax Space Missions

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Challenge

      Interaction of NASA with public is very well. We already know some of the opportunities and public relations like Send name to Mars by Curiosity and Insight Landers. Logo Designs, Name selection, Poster Presentations etc,...\

      Here is another opportunity for Kids, Students, Educators and all publics to interact with scientists of NASA's Mars Program. This Participation known as High Resolution Imaging Experiment. Register and Log in to your account. Then Help Scientists to decide a  place to take photograph by using their Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. 

Options in HiRISE:

  • Mars for Kids
  • Mars for Students
  • Mars for Educators
  • Send Postcard to Spirit
  • Be a Martian
  • Mars Exploration Student Data Teams
  • High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Challenge
Steps for Participation:

  • Visit -
  • Click Register
  • Create Account
  • Verify Account by E-Mail
  • Change Password
  • Log-In into HiRISE
  • Participate in the Challenge
About HiRISE:

     HiRISE is an instrument installed in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter which is currently active in exploring Mars Surface. So the scientists had created a open platform to interact and find discoveries on surface of Mars. In this platform, you need to create a new suggestion for taking photographs with relevant information.

Monday, November 20, 2017

First Interstellar Asteroid Visitor to our Solar System

     NASA Scientists have found a new asteroid which is considered as first interstellar asteroid visitor to our solar system. And the asteroid is coming from another star which shaped like Cigar. The asteroid was named Oumuamua by the scientists. It is about 400 meter long and it can provide new evidences and clue to the formation of the universe. This asteroid is very different as compared to the asteroid which revolving around our solar system. 

     We have been exploring interstellar space since decades, and we are interested in exploring more and more beyond Earth. After the detection of strange asteroid, Large Telescopes from European Space Agency and other observatories turned their attention towards the asteroid to gather numerous data.The asteroid is about ten times longer than the width.

     Some ground based observatory are continuously tracking the asteroid. The Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope also tracking the object from 20th November 2017. The asteroid Oumuamua is travelling at a speed of 38.3 kilometers per second relative to the Sun and its location is about 200 million kilometers away from our Earth.

     Asteroid Travelling Path: The asteroid Oumuamua already passed Mars orbit on 1st November and will pass the orbit of Jupiter in May of 2018, and then it will cross the Saturn's orbit in January 2019, finally it will leave our solar system and heading towards the constellation Pegasus.

     The Object was discovered by Hawaii's Pan-STARRS1 Telescope on 19th October 2017, and the Pan-STARRS1 was funded and supported by NASA's Near-Earth Object Observations Program, which constantly tracking the asteroid near our earth.

More Information:

Photo credit : National Aeronautics Space Administration
Information by : NASA / NEOO
Date of Publication : 21st November 2017 | Link-Interstellar-Asteroid

Saturday, November 18, 2017

LISA Pathfinder for Gravitational Waves

      LISA Pathfinder successfully constructed for the detection of Gravitational Waves in Space. A Video from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center explains about the LISA Pathfinder, which is Joint mission between National Aeronautics Space Administration and European Space Agency.

Video Credit : ESA and NASA

Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Launch

    National Aeronautics Space Administration successfully launched for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's first series of satellite, equipped with next generation technology and designed accuracy of weather forecast. This is one of the satellite for four advanced satellite.

Launch Details:

Name of Satellite : Joint Polar Satellite System-1
Country : United States / NASA
Date : 18 November 2017
Time : 1:47 A.M PST
Launch Pad : Vandenburg Air Force Base Space Launch Complex
Type of Satellite : Weather Satellite for United States
Credits : NASA and NOAA
Photo Credit : NASA

More Details:

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Jupiter's Duo Auroras

     Juno - a spacecraft specially designed and launched to study Jupiter. Since its arrival it has been exploring the planet surface and its giant storms. The great red spot which has numerous giant storms prevailing since years. Jupiter has beautiful auroras in the atmosphere, we can see through the image taken and sent by NASA's Juno Spacecraft. It is currently active on Jupiter.

     This Image shows the String of Pearls one of the eight massive rotating storms at 40 degrees south latitude on the gas giant planet.

(Source : Juno updates at

Image Details:

Image taken by  - Juno Spacecraft
Date  -  24 October 2017
Time  -  2:11 p.m 
During - Ninth Flyby of Jupiter
Angle - 52.96 degrees
Distance - 33,115 kilometers
Resolution  -  22.3 kilometers / pixel
Image by Scientists  -  Gerald Eichstadt and Sean Doran

(Data Source : )

Jupiter's Independently Pulsating X-Ray Auroras:

      Jupiter's intense northern and southern lights of auroras, behave independently of each other according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory and ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory. These observation was made from March 2007 and May & June 2016. A team of researchers produced a map of Jupiter's X-Ray emissions and identified X-Ray hotspot at each pole. Each hotspot can cover an area equal to the half the surface of the earth.

     The team founded that the hotspots had very different characteristics. The X-Ray emission at Jupiter's south pole consistently pulsed every 11 minutes, but the X-rays seen from the north pole were erratic, increasing and decreasing in brightness revealing the independent of the emission from the south pole of the Jupiter.

     Scientists planned for a combine study of Jupiter's Auroras by comparing the X-Ray emission map from XMM-Newtons Observatory and Juno Spacecraft (currently active). The Auroras in Jupiter is not similar to our Earth. Because, auroras observed in north and south pole of Earth is like mirror due to the similar magnetic fields.

Scientific Paper on Jupiter's Duo Auroras:

     After deep observation, researchers published a paper describing these results on 30th October issue of Nature Astronomy, led by William Dunn of the University College of London. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

Credits: Image - X-Ray NASA/CXC/UCL/W.Dunn et al  | Text - Lee Mohon
Published on : 7 November 2017 at NASA Webpage

More Information:

Geologic Activity on Enceladous - Saturn's Moon

Recent studies from ESA and NASA's Cassini Mission revealed that one of the Saturn's moon Enceladus have Hydrothermal activity due to the heat from friction since billions of years. This discovery was made from new modelling study carried out by U.S researchers on NASA's Cassini Mission.

Team of researchers have published a paper on Hydrothermal activity and geologic activity of Saturn's moon Enceladous on 7 November 2017. Cassini found that Enceladous sprays water vapour and icy particles including organic in the south pole. Additional study revealed the existence of ocean beneath the crust and it venting water into space. Evidence from Cassini indicates the hydrothermal activity and the interaction of chemicals with rock which are taking place on the seafloor. The average thickness of ice beneath the crust is about 20 to 25 kilometers. Enceladous have water equals to 2% of Earth oceans. This oceans have frozen within 30 million years ago. The geologic activity of Enceladous is still a mystery. Further studies is going on Saturn's moon Enceladous.

Cassini Mission:

     The Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997, it orbited Saturn from 2004 to 2017. Cassini made numerous dramatic discoveries, including the surprising activity on Enceladous and liquid methane on Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Cassini ended its journey with a dramatic plunge into the Saturn's atmosphere on 15th September 2017, returning science data until it lost contact with Earth.

     The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA and Italian Space Agency.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Cassini was designed and assembled by JPL.

More Information:

Credits : Image Credit : NASA and Cassini Mission Text Credit : Tony Greicius
Published Date of Information : 7th November 2017 by Tony Greicius

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Abell's Richest Cluster - Abell 665

     Hubble Space Telescope is a collaborative mission between NASA and ESA. It has changed the view of universe since its launch. It had made wonderful discoveries by its magnificent view of the universe. Here is one of the view of Hubble discovery called Abell's Richest Cluster.

     As of many theories, one of the leading theory in modern astrophysics is Hierarchial Clustering, where a small pieces of black matters collide and merge to form a large glowing clusters. The largest known structure in the universe is cosmos. We have seen many discoveries such as Galaxies, Star clusters, Supernovas, Black holes and Super clusters. Of these discoveries, a particular cluster called Abell 665. It was imaged by Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera-3.

Details of Abell 665 Cluster:

Name of the Cluster - Abell 665 cluster
Discoverer                - George O.Abell 
Year of Discovery     - 1958
Location in the Sky   - Ursa Major
Imaged taken by       - Wide Field Camera - 3 of Hubble Space Telescope
NASA's Information about Abell 665 Cluster:

   Abell 665 is the only special cluster in the entire catalogue of Abell to be given the richness class of 5, indicating that the cluster contains a galaxies on 300 individual galaxy. Because of this richness, the cluster has been studied by NASA in all wavelengths. This resulted in the numerous discovery. Abell 665 has been found to host a giant radio halo, powerful shock waves, and has been used to calculate an updates value for the Hubble constant.

Credits: ESA/NASA Hubble Space Telescope
Text & Details from : European Space Agency

Machholz's Comet 1986

    A collaborative mission between European Space Agency and National Aeronautics Space Administration called Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spotted a comet. The comet was called Comet 96P which returned after 2012 on 25th October 2017. The SOHO spotted the same comet in 1996, 2002, 2007 and 2012 making it a frequent visitor to our solar system.

    Simultaneously another observatory called Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory shortly called STEREO. it watched the comet between 26 October 2017 to 28 October 2017. It is an rare event that both observatory captured the same comet from two different places. Scientists of NASA are interested in finding the composition of the comet, interaction of comet with solar wind and the flow of charged particles by integrating the data from STEREO and SOHO Observatories.

Basic Details of Comet 96P:

Name of Comet     -  Machholz or Comet 96P
Founder                 -  Don Machholz
Year of Discovery -  1986
Orbital Period        -  5.24 Years
Closest approach  -  11,000 km
Re-Observed          -  1996 - 2002 - 2007 - 2012 - 2017

    Scientists found the comet 96P interesting, because it is different from all other families of comet. It origins from a larger part of Millennia and brokeup into smaller fragments. From the collected data of SOHO observatory, astronomers are interested in knowing the composition and also the nature and origins of complex family.

Tags: Comet 96P | SOHO Observatory | STEREO Observatory

Information Provided by : National Aeronautics Space Administration
Credits : Image Credit : NASA | SOHO