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Sunday, October 15, 2017

Fobos-Grunt

Fobos-Grunt Overview:

     Fobos-Grunt was an Russian Sample Return Mission to Phobos, which is one of the moon of Mars. It also carried the Chinese orbiter called Yinghuo-1 and a small Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment funded and developed by the Planetary Society.

Launch:

      The Spacecraft was arrived at the launch pad "Baikonur" on 17th October 2011. It was launched successfully on 8th November 2011. It was carried by Zenith-2SB41 Rocket developed by Russian Space Agency.

Design and Development:

     The Fobos-Grunt design was began in 1999, when the Russian Space Research Institute and NPO Lavochkin initiated rouble feasibility study into Phobos sample-return mission. It was similar to the 1980s Fobos program. On 26th March 2007, Russia and China signed a cooperative agreement on joint exploration of Mars, which included Fobos-Grunt & Yinghuo-1 weigh 115kg.

Fobos-Grunt Development Partners:
  • NPO Lavochkin
  • GEOHI RAN Institute - Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Vernadski Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical chemistry
  • Russian Space Research Institute
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • Planetary Society 
  • Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  • Finnish Meteorological Institute - Two MetNet Mars Landers 
Objectives:
  • Delivery of Soil of Phobos to Earth for research of Mars,Phobos
  • To Monitor the atmosphere of Mars and dynamics of dust storms
  • To study the vicinity of Mars including radiation belt
  • To study the formation of moons and terrestrial planets by the impact of asteroids
  • In search of possible evidence for past or present life
  • Study the impact of three-year interplanetary round trip journey on extremophile micro-organisms in a small sealed capsule (LIFE Experiment)
Scientific Instruments:
  • Television System for Navigation and Guidance
  • Gas Chromatograph package | Thermal Differential Analyzer - Gas-Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometer |
  • Gamma Ray Spectrometer
  • Neutron Spectrometer
  • Alpha X Spectrometer
  • Seismometer
  • Long Wave Radar
  • Visual and Near Infrared Spectrometer
  • Dust Counter
  • Ion Spectrometer
  • Optical Solar Sensor
Communication:
     The first communication was received by the European Space Agency's tracking station located in Perth on 22nd November 2011, Australia. After receiving, they sent a command to turn one of its transmitters. The contact was made on 20:25 UTC on 22nd November 2011 as reported by European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt. Then No Telemetry signal was received in this communication.
Repeat Mission:
   In January 2012,Russian Space Research Institute and NPO Lavochkin called scientists and engineers for a repeat sample return mission called Fobos-Grunt-2 and Boomerang, for launch in 2020. Again it was estimated to complete the repeat mission within approx.2024. Some of the instruments designed for the Fobos-Grunt were installed and carried by Exo-Mars Trace Gas Orbiter.

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