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Sunday, October 15, 2017


Fobos-Grunt Overview:

     Fobos-Grunt was an Russian Sample Return Mission to Phobos, which is one of the moon of Mars. It also carried the Chinese orbiter called Yinghuo-1 and a small Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment funded and developed by the Planetary Society.


      The Spacecraft was arrived at the launch pad "Baikonur" on 17th October 2011. It was launched successfully on 8th November 2011. It was carried by Zenith-2SB41 Rocket developed by Russian Space Agency.

Design and Development:

     The Fobos-Grunt design was began in 1999, when the Russian Space Research Institute and NPO Lavochkin initiated rouble feasibility study into Phobos sample-return mission. It was similar to the 1980s Fobos program. On 26th March 2007, Russia and China signed a cooperative agreement on joint exploration of Mars, which included Fobos-Grunt & Yinghuo-1 weigh 115kg.

Fobos-Grunt Development Partners:
  • NPO Lavochkin
  • GEOHI RAN Institute - Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Vernadski Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical chemistry
  • Russian Space Research Institute
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • Planetary Society 
  • Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  • Finnish Meteorological Institute - Two MetNet Mars Landers 
  • Delivery of Soil of Phobos to Earth for research of Mars,Phobos
  • To Monitor the atmosphere of Mars and dynamics of dust storms
  • To study the vicinity of Mars including radiation belt
  • To study the formation of moons and terrestrial planets by the impact of asteroids
  • In search of possible evidence for past or present life
  • Study the impact of three-year interplanetary round trip journey on extremophile micro-organisms in a small sealed capsule (LIFE Experiment)
Scientific Instruments:
  • Television System for Navigation and Guidance
  • Gas Chromatograph package | Thermal Differential Analyzer - Gas-Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometer |
  • Gamma Ray Spectrometer
  • Neutron Spectrometer
  • Alpha X Spectrometer
  • Seismometer
  • Long Wave Radar
  • Visual and Near Infrared Spectrometer
  • Dust Counter
  • Ion Spectrometer
  • Optical Solar Sensor
     The first communication was received by the European Space Agency's tracking station located in Perth on 22nd November 2011, Australia. After receiving, they sent a command to turn one of its transmitters. The contact was made on 20:25 UTC on 22nd November 2011 as reported by European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt. Then No Telemetry signal was received in this communication.
Repeat Mission:
   In January 2012,Russian Space Research Institute and NPO Lavochkin called scientists and engineers for a repeat sample return mission called Fobos-Grunt-2 and Boomerang, for launch in 2020. Again it was estimated to complete the repeat mission within approx.2024. Some of the instruments designed for the Fobos-Grunt were installed and carried by Exo-Mars Trace Gas Orbiter.


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