Read more:


SpaceX Future Concept of Landed Spaceships (Big Falcon Rocket) on Mars


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Artist Concept of Moon Base Alpha led by Elon Musk (SpaceX)


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


Elon Musk Concept of Mars Base with Big BFR Rockets


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Pluto Facts

     Pluto is a dwarf plnaet. It was once considered as ninth planet from the Sun. But now it was removed from the planet lists. It was discovered by Clyde W.Tombaugh on 18 February 1930. 

Facts about Pluto:
  • Pluto is not a planet but Dwarf Planet
  • Pluto has five moons around it - Styx | Nix | Kerberos | Hydra | Charon
  • Pluto was visited by New Horizons spacecraft on 14 July 2015
  • It one of the moons Charon has ingredients of emergence of life
  • Pluto was named after the God of the underworld
  • Pluto takes 248 years to complete one revolution
  • Sometimes Pluto enters into the path of Neptune
  • Pluto has a mass of 0.00218 times Earth
  • Pluto has surface temperature of 33K
  • Pluto is mainly composed of Nitrogen | Methane | Carbon Monoxide
  • Pluto was rejected as a planet after the discovery of similar size objects in Kuiper belt  
Tags: Pluto Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Neptune Facts


     Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun and last of the all planet. It is the third largest planet in mass. It was named after the Roman god of Sea due to the Blue coloration. 

Facts about Neptune:
  • Neptune takes 164.8 Earth years to orbit around sun - Last completion 11 July 2011
  • Neptune was discovered by Jean Joseph Le Verrier
  • Neptune is named after the Roman god of Sea
  • Neptune has the second largest gravity in our solar system
  • The orbit path of Neptune is approximately 30 astronomical units (AU) from Sun
  • The largest Neptunian moon, Triton was discovered just 17 days after Neptune was discovered
  • Neptune has a storm similar to the Great Red Spot on the Jupiter
  • Neptune also has a second storm called the Small Dark Spot
  • Neptune spins very quickly on its axis - 18 hours
  • Only one spacecraft, the Voyager 2 visited the Neptune
  • The Climate on Neptune is extremely active - The Solar winds speeds upto 1,340 km/hour
  • Neptune has ring system which are very faint
  • Neptune has 14 moons
  • Neptune has an average surface temperature of -214 degree Celsius         
Tags: Neptune Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Uranus Facts


     Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is named after the father of the roman god. It is the third of gas giants and third largest planet in our solar system. Fourth most massive planet too. It also has invisible rings around it.

Facts about Uranus:
  • Dr.William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781
  • Uranus rotates on its axis once every 17 hours and 14 minutes
  • It takes 84 Earth days to orbit the Sun
  • A collision may have caused the unusual tilt of the Uranus
  • Uranus winds speeds upto 900km/hour
  • The mass of the Uranus is about 14.5 times the mass of the Earth
  • Uranus is often referred to as the " Ice Giant"
  • Uranus is the second least dense planet in our solar system after Saturn
  • The Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited Uranus
  • Uranus has 13 presently rings around it.
  • The Chemical element Uranium, discovered in 1789 named after this planet
  • Uranus is the coldest planet in the Solar system - Temp ranging -224 degree Celsius
  • The moons of Uranus are named for characters created by Alexander Pope & William Shakespeare - Oberan | Titania | Miranda
Tags: Uranus Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Saturn Facts


     Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet of the Solar system. It was named after the Roman god of mythology. It as Rings around it which is made up of gases.

Facts about Saturn:
  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun
  • Saturn is one of the five planets which can be seen with our naked eye in the sky
  • The nickname of Saturn is " Ringed Planet"
  • Saturn gives off more energy than it receives from the Sun
  • Saturn takes 29.4 Earth years to complete one Revolution around Sun
  • Saturn has the fastest winds of any other planet in the Solar System - 1,800 km/hour
  • Saturn is the least dense planet in our solar system
  • Saturn has nearly 150 moons and smaller moonlets
  • One of the Saturn's Moon Titan is the second largest moon in the solar system
  • Saturn is the flattest of Eight planets  
  • Saturn has oval shaped storms which are similar to those of planet Jupiter
  • Saturn appears Pale Yellow as its atmosphere contains ammonia crystals
  • Four Spacecraft have visited Saturn - Pioneer 11 | Voyager 1& 2 | Cassini
  • The magnetic field of Saturn is weaker than earth's magnetic field
  • Saturn is known as Gas Giant - but scientists believe that it has solid rocky core
  • The Interior of Saturn is very hot - Temperature upto 11,700 degree celsius
  • Saturn is about 1,424,6000,000 km away from sun
  • If we combine Saturn & Jupiter, its mass will be equal to 92% of total planetary mass 
Tags: Saturn Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Jupiter Facts


      Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and it was named after the Roman god of King. It is the largest planet in our solar system. It almost equals to 317 times the mass of the Earth. 

Facts about Jupiter:
  • Jupiter was first sighted by ancient Babylonians in around 7th Century
  • It was only planet to prove the earth was not center after the discovery of four moons of Jupiter by Galileo in 1610
  • Jupiter has the shortest day of the eight planets
  • One orbit of the Sun takes around 11.86 Earth Years
  • Jupiter has faint ring system around it above the clouds (92,000 km)
  • Jupiter has 63 confirmed moons around it
  • The largest of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system
  • Jupiter has very strong magnetic field - As it swallowed a comet once 
  • Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in our solar system
  • Jupiter has very unique cloud layer of ammonia & sulphur
  • Eight spacecraft have visited Jupiter - Pioneer 10 &11 |  Voyager 1 & 2 | Galileo | Cassini | Ulysses | New Horizon and Juno
  • Jupiter does not experience seasons like other planets - Earth & Mars
  • Jupiter's great Red Spot is an enormous storm that has been raging for 300 years
  • Juno is currently active spacecraft around Jupiter  
Tags: Jupiter Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Mars Facts


     Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the last of terrestrial planets. Mars is named after the Roman god of War. It is also called as Red Planet because of reddish appearance due to the excess amount of Ferrous dust in the Mars atmosphere. Mars is the second smallest planet in the solar system.

Facts about Mars:
  • Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and the last terrestrial planet
  • Mars is named after the Roman god of War
  • The Landmass of Mars is very similar to our Earth
  • Only 16 out of 39 Mars Missions have been successful
  • Pieces of Mars have been found on Earth
  • Mars was once believed to be the existence of life
  • The tallest mountain known in the solar system is on Mars - Olympus Mons - 600 km 
  • Mars in the only planet which experiences huge dust storms - the largest storms
  • The Sun looks half of its size from Mars
  • In Our solar system, Life possibility is more on Mars next to Earth
  • The People on Mars will be called as Martians
  • Mars takes 687 earth days to complete one revolution around Sun
  • Mars is the only planet to have Polar Ice Caps after earth
  • Mars has seasons similar to Earth, but they prevail for months
  • The orbit of Mars is most eccentric of the eight planets
  • Mars has two moons - The Phobos and The Deimos
  • Mars does not have magnetic fields 
  • One of its moon Phobos is vanishing slowly
  • Opportunity and Curiosity are the only rovers currently active on Mars
  • The attempt for Exploration of Mars began in October 1960 by Russia 
Tags: Mars Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Earth Facts


     Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the largest terrestrial planets. It is the planet where the climate is moderate with existence of life. This is the only habitable planet in our solar system. It is also referred to as "Blue Diamond" as its major surface is covered with water.

Facts about Earth:
  • The Earth was once believed to be the centre of the Universe for nearly 2000 years
  • Earth is the only planet not named for a mythological god or goddess
  • Earth is the more dense planet in the solar system
  • The force of Gravity between the Earth and Moon causes tides on Earth
  • Earth's water was trapped within the planet
  • The highest mountain on the Earth is Mount Everest and also a highest point
  • The lowest point is called Challenger Deep
  • Our Earth has one of the most circular orbits of all the eight planets
  • A Year on the earth is 365 days
  • The first life on Earth developed in the Oceans
  • 70% of Earth's surface is covered by water
  • The Earth has Ozone layer which protects it from harmful radiation - solar radiation
  • Earth has very powerful magnetic field
  • Oxygen present on Earth mostly comes from plant's life 
  • The Rotation of the Earth is Gradually slowing down
Tags: Earth Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Venus Facts


     Venus is the second planet of our solar system and the third brightest object in the Earth's sky after the Sun and the Moon. It is referred as the sister planet of Earth because of the similar size and mass. The atmosphere of Venus is fully covered with Sulphuric acid clouds. It was named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty and is the second largest terrestrial planet.

Facts of the Planet Venus:
  • Venus is the second brightest natural object in night sky
  • Venus is referred to as "Morning Star & Evening Star"
  • One day on the Venus is longer than One Year on our Earth - It takes 243 Days for Rotation
  • Venus is named after the Roman Goddess of "Love and Beauty"
  • Venus is called the Sister planet of Earth - Due to similar mass and size of Earth.
  • Venus has No Moons and No Rings
  • Over Billions of Years ago the Climate of Venus is similar to the Earth.
  • Venus rotates opposite direction as compared to all other planets
  • Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system - Temperature ranging from 462 degree Celsius
  • The Temperature does not vary between day and night
  • The age of Venus is about 300-400 million years old (estimated)
  • The atmospheric pressure of Venus is about 92 times stronger than our Earth
  • Its Magnetic Field is very weak as compared to Earth
  • The only planet in our solar system named after the Female figure.
  • Venus is about 41 million kilometers away from our Earth
  • It orbiting path sometimes like a circle and sometime ellipse.
  • The Planet Venus was first recorded in 14th Century by Babylonian Astronomers 
Tags: Venus Facts | Planetary Facts | Space Facts

Gravitational Wave Discovery

Gravitational Wave:

     Gravitational wave are ripples in the curvature of the space and time, which are generated in certain gravitational interactions and propagate as waves outward from their source at a speed of light. Their possibility was discussed in 1893.


     In 1916, the year after the final publication of the field equations of general relativity, Albert Einstein predicted the existence of Gravitational Waves. He found that linearized weak field equations had wave solutions transverse wave of spatial strain that travel at the speed of light, generated by time variations of the mass quadrupole moment of the source. Similarly in 1916 Schwarzschild published the solution for the field equations that was later understood to describe a black hole. After a century scientists discovered and proved the existence of Gravitational Wave.

Line Source:  Observation of Gravitational waves from a Binary Black Hole / American Physical Society

Observatories for Gravitational waves:
  • TAMA 300 in Japan
  • GEO 600 in Germany
  • LIGO in United States
LIGO - Laser Interferometer Gravititaional Wave Observatory:
Image Source: American Physical Journal / LIGO Published Paper
     There were two observatories similar to the LIGO. LIGO in Hanford, Washington and another in Livingston, Louisiana. They were constructed with advanced optic mirrors, laser as a source, and detectors. The observatory is in the shape of L of 4x4 kilometers. The mirrors were fixed with anti-shaking  technology to avoid unwanted shaking due to earth rotation and some noises around the observatory. Around the long pipe high vacuum is developed to detect a very micro frequency.


      Two Neutron stars led to the discovery of gravitational wave. One star having 29 solar mass and one another having 36 solar mass collided with high velocity losing 3 solar mass to produce a gravitational waves. The neutron stars collided due to large gravity within them. Finally, their collision resulted in the formation of black hole. In 2015, Advanced LIGO became the first of a significantly more sensitive network of advanced detectors to begin observations. On 14th September 2015, at 09:50:45 UTC, the LIGO Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana detected the coincident signal GW150914

  When they detected the first wave, they were unable to confirm the wave was really gravitational wave or not. After few years, when they again received and detected the gravitational wave with similar coincident wave at both observatory in Hanford & Livingston. They finalized the Gravitational Wave.


   Gravitational wave was an amazing discovery of this century. After the discovery of Gravitation by Issac Newton and Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein. It was a mind blowing discovery for further discussion and futuristic discovery about gravitation. It will be a great key for future development and understanding about the Gravity and Gravitation waves and also the formation of Universe. It seems like, very soon our scientists will detect the Gravitons responsible for the Gravity. The future is near. Great Job by LIGO Scientists. Congrats to all the 1000 of scientists who contributed for the discovery of Gravitational Waves.

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

LPI Summer Intern Program in Planetary Science

     The Lunar and Planetary Institute invites undergraduates with at least 50 semester hours of credit to experience cutting-edge research in the lunar and planetary sciences. As a summer Intern, you will work with scientist at the LPI or at the NASA Johnson Space Center on a research project of current interest in the lunar and planetary science.

The 10-week program runs from 4 June 2018 to 9 August 2018. The LPI is located near Johnson Space Center, on the south side of Houston, Texas.

Schedules for Internship:

  • 5 January 2018 - Dead Line for Application
  • 9 March 2018   -  Notifications of Selections
  • 4 June 2018      -  Program Begins
  • 9 August 2018  - LPI Summer Intern Conference
  • 10August 2018 - Program Ends
Areas of Research:

  • Lunar Science and Exploration
  • Planetary Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy
  • Image Processing
  • Planetary Geology and Surface Processes
  • Impact Studies
  • Geophysical Data Analysis and Modelling
  • Physics and Chemistry of Planetary Atmospheres
  • Meteorites and Sample Analysis
  • Interplanetary Dust and Presolar Grains
  • Mineralogy / Petrology
Application for the 2018 Program will be available 26 October 2017 at

First Light Detected from Gravitational Event Oct 2017

     This official documentry shows the first detection of light by gravitational wave event. The gravitational wave - caused by an explosive merger of two neutron stars, about 130 million light years away from Earth. It produced a gamma ray burst and a rarely seen flare-up called a kilonova. The phenomenon was captured by NASA's fermi, Swift, Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer missions, along with dozens of NASA-funded based ground observatories. 

The Video is available for Download at Click to Visit Link

Video Credit : NASA


   Magnetometer are the onboard instruments mostly used in exploration and observation satellites. This instrument was made available after the discovery of Val Allen belt around the Earth by Explorer-1. This instrument was used for the detailed study of magnetic fields of Earth, Moon, Sun, Mars, Venus and other planets.

The first spacecraft in which magnetometer was installed was Sputnik-3 spacecraft in 1958 and the most detailed observation of Earth magnetic field was performed by the Magsat & Orsted satellites.

Spacecraft magnetometers are of three type, they are

  • Fluxgate Magnetometer
  • Search coil Magnetometer
  • Ionized gas Magnetometer
Notable Spacecraft for Fluxgate Magnetometer:

  • Pioneer 0
  • Pioneer 1 & other Pioneer Series
  • Luna-1
  • Luna-2
  • Luna-10
  • Able IVB
  • Venera-4
  • Venera-5
Notable Spacecraft for Ring core & Spherical Magnetometer:

  • Apollo-16
  • Magsat
  • Voyager
  • Ulysses
  • Giotto
  • Lunar Prospector-1
  • Orsted Satellites
Notable Spacecraft for Search Coil Magnetometer:

  • Pioneer-5
  • Orbiting Geophysical Observatory - 1 to OGO - 6
  • Vela Satellite
  • THEMIS Satellites
Notable Spacecraft for Ionized Gas Magnetometer:

  • Explorer-10
  • Ranger-1 and Rager-2
  • Mariner-4
  • Mariner-5
Tags: Magnetometer | Spacecraft Payloads | Spacecrafts