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Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Mars 2


DESCRIPTION:

     Mars 2 Orbiter along with Mars 2 Lander together called Mars 2 Mission. It was unmanned mission sent to Mars by Soviet Russia in Early 1971. Mars 2 and Mars 3 missions were similar to each other, both consisting of Orbiter and a Lander. The got their design from a spacecraft called Venera9. This probe almost reached Mars but it was deployed.

ORBITER:

     The spacecraft's engine burned to place it into Martian Orbit for about 18 hours, engines were started after 30 minutes near periapsis.

OBJECTIVES:

     The objectives of Mars 2 Mission were
  • To image Martian Surface and Clouds [Mars 2 Images]                         
  • To determine the surface temperature of Mars
  • To study Topography, composition and physical properties of surface
  • To measure properties and composition of Atmosphere
  • To monitor Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic fields
  • To Act as communication relay between earth and the lander
MISSION BARRIER:

     Mars 2 mission was particularly affected by large dust storm. Due to this dust storm, atmosphere of Mars became thick, this observation were noticed by Mariner 9 Spacecraft which successfully orbited mars in 14 November of 1971. Both Mars 2 and Mars 3 were unable to program their computer due to the dust storm which dispatched their lander immediately. Landers were affected by dust storm and resulted in mission failure.

OUTCOMES:
  • Mars 2 was successful sending data from December 1971 to March 1972
  • Both the orbiters combined and sent 6o images, which revealed the presence of 22km high mountain, oxygen and hydrogen in upper atmosphere.
  • It found Surface temperature of -110 to 13 deg C, Pressure 6 millibar.
  • It discovered the giant dust storm prevails to an altitude of 7 to 8 km.
  • It gave more information on Martian gravity and Magnetic fields
FURTHER REFERENCE

  1. Mars 2 Mission Images (Soviet Mars Image Catalog) 
  2. NASA Mars Mission Website
BOOKS ON MARS 2 AND MARS 3:

     Destination Mars, Pyle Rod (2012) ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7 [PDF]

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