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Sunday, April 30, 2017

Mars 96

          Mars 8 otherwise called Mars 96 which was launched by the Russian Space Forces to Mars in 1996. This spacecraft was programmed based on the Phobos Probes of Mars 1988. It was very ambitious mission at that time. This mission included an orbiter, Surface Stations and Surface penetrators. Mars 96 had many scientific instruments provided by the European countries.

AIM:  The prime aim of this mission was to understand the evolutionary history of formation of Martian surface, atmosphere and interior structure of planet mars.

ORBITER DESIGN: Mars 96 was similar to the model and design of Phobos orbiters. Its body had high gain antenna and low gain antenna for communications. Two solar panel at the side is set for the power source. It also had two surface stations and two penetrators for fuel propulsion system. The total mass of Mars 96 spacecraft was 6,180 kg.


1) ARGUS TV Camera
2) PAIS Camera
3) HRSC - High Resolution Stereoscopic Camera
4) WAOSS - Wide-Angle Stereoscopic TV-Camera
5) OMEGA - Visible and Infrared mapping Spectrometer
6) PFS - Planetary Fourier Spectrometer
7) TERMOSCAN - Mapping Radiometer
8) SVET - High Resolution Mapping Spectrometer
9) SPICAM - Multi-channel Optical Spectrometer
10) UVS-M - Ultraviolet Spectrometer
11) LWR - Long Wave Radar
12) PHOTON - Gamma-ray Spectrometer
13) NEUTRON-S - Neutron Spectrometer
14) MAK - Quadruple Mass Spectrometer
15) ASPERA - Energy mass ion spectrograph and Neutral particle imager
16) FONEMA - Fast Omnidirectional Non-scanning ion energy-mass analyzer
17) DYMIO - Omnidirectional ionospheric Mass spectrometer
18) MARIPROB - Ionospheric Plasma Spectrometers
19) MAREMF - Electrostatic Analyzer and Magnetometer
20) ELISMA - Solar wind monitor
21) SLED - Low Energy Charged Particle Spectrometer
22) PGS - Precision Gamma Spectrometer
23) LILAS-2 - Research of Cosmic and Solar Gamma-ray Bursts
24) EVRIS - Investigation of oscillations in stars
25) SOYA - Solar Oscillation Photometer
26) RADIUS-M - Radiation Control Complex


27) MIS - Meteorology Instrument System
28) DPI - Descent Phase Instrument
29) ALPHA - Alpha-particle, photon, X-ray Spectrometer
30) OPTIMISM - Magnetometer and Seismometer
31) DesCam - Descent Phase Camera
32) PanCam - Panormic Camera
33) MOx - Mars oxidant Experiment
34) MAPEx - Microelectronic and Photonic experiment


35) TVS- Television Camera
36) MECOM METEO SET - Meteorological Measurement
37) PEGAS GAMMA - Spectrometer
38) ANGSTREM - X-ray Spectrometer
39) ALPHA ALPHA-P - Spectrometer
40) NEUTRON NEUTRON-P - Spectrometer
41) GRUNT - Accelerometer
42) TERMOZOND - Physical study of Martian Rocks
43) KAMERTON -  Seismometer
44) IMAP-6 - Magnetometer


     It was planned that, after 10 months of space travel towards mars, it will successfully reach Mars on 12th September 1997( Approx). Before five days they will release the two surface penetrators and staions to land. But the mission resulted in Failure.


     Mars 96 was unsuccessful because of the malfunction of Proton K/D upper stage ignition. It re-entered into the earth's atmosphere and the spacecraft debris fell into the Pacific Ocean. Sometimes it was believed that its plutonium fuel was responsible for the spacecraft failure itself. Mars 96 was a huge spacecrafts which carried nearly 44-45 scientific instruments. Later on, all the missions to mars was constructed based on the scientific plan of Mars 96. For Example: Mars Express


    Click this link: Mars 96 Orbiter and Penetrators


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