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Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Mariner 9

Mariner 9 was an unmanned spacecraft launched towards Mars. It was one of the mission of Mariner Program. Mariner 8 and Mariner 9 together called Mariner Mars 71 project. In which Mariner 8 failed to orbit whereas Mariner 9 successfully orbited the Mars. It became the first orbiter to orbit around Mars. It was designed and Manufactured by Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

     Mariner 9 was launched on 30 May 1971 at 22:23:04 UTC from Cape Canaveral. It greatly contributed to the exploration of Mars. It was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet after the unsuccessful of Soviet Mars 2 and Mars 3. It took clear images of Mars and its dust storms which prevailed there for a month.


     1) It was designed to study Martian atmosphere left by Mariner 6 and 
     2) Infrared spectrometer was installed to detect heat sources (Volcanic activities)
     3) To study temporal changes in the Martian atmosphere
     4) To study and analyse two martian moons (Phobos and Deimos)


     1) Ultraviolet Spectrometer
     2) Infrared Infterferometer Spectrometer
     3) Celestial Mechanics
     4) S-Band occultation ( for communication)
     5) Infrared Radiometer
     6) Visual Imaging System


     1) Spacecraft frame was made with Magnesium frame
     2) It had four solar panels which could produce a power of 500 watts
     3) Power was stored in 20-ampere Nickel-Cadmium Battery
     4) Propulsion was provided by Gimbaled-engine (1340 N of thrust)
     5) Propellant was monomethy hydrazine and nitrogen tetraoxide
     6) Attitude control was provided by Sun sensor, a Canopus tracker, Gyroscopes, inertial reference unit
     7) Command systems = 86 direct, 4 Quantitative and 5 Control commands
     8) Data was stored in Reel-reel tape recorder of 180 million bits

     9) Telecommunication done via dual S-band 10-20W transmitters through low,high and omni-directional            antenna


  1.     It discovered thick atmosphere with planet-wide robe of dust, largest storm.
  2.  Photograph contributed to the discover of Volcanoes on Mars (Tharis Bulge)
  3.  Photograph showed the creators, ice caps, volcanoes, river beds, Olympus Mons (largest volcano) , water erosion deposits, weather fronts, fogs.
  4.  The canyon was renamed Valles Marineries in honour of Mariner 9.


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