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Never Miss a Chance to see skyevents of this year


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


An ESA Spacecraft for studying Gravitational Waves


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Thursday, February 8, 2018

Falcon Heavy

Falcon Heavy standing on launch pad
     Falcon Heavy is a giant reusable heavy launch vehicle designed and manufactured by Elon Musk's SpaceX. Its two Falcon-9 first stages and one Falcon-9 rocket makes it a powerful rocket.  It has variable payload lift capability which increases from 63,800 kilograms to Low Earth Orbit. It became world's fourth highest capacity rocket built ever after the Saturn-V and Energia rockets. It was designed to carry humans into space including Moon.

First Successful Launch:

     SpaceX made a history by launching its first heavy vehicle on 6 February 2018 at 3:45 pm according to European Standard Time. It carried a dummy payload "Roadster". It design and manufacture struggling started from September 2005, finally its made its achievement on Feb 6,2018.  It was developed with complete private capital somewhat around $500 million USD dollars and no government financial support was provided from the government.


     The primary design is the centered rocket is complete Falcon-9 and it side boosters are first stages of Falcon-9 rocket. Elon Musk gave a talk in Mars Society for launch of Falcon type rockets in around 2013 and it finally got success in 2018. 

Falcon Heavy propelling into space

First Flight:

     Flight-1 - It was carried on 6 February 2018 at 20:45 UTC by SpaceX. It carried Spacex's Roadster as payload and the mission outcome was success. It lifted successfully from the ground and then the Roadster was sent to Trans-Mars Injection heliocentric orbit. Then its both side boosters landed successfully and the two centered boosters suffered a engine failure, re-entered and struck the ocean damaging the engines. (Drone ship).

Future Flight:

     SpaceX aimed to make its next launch in June 2018 carrying some nanosatellites, deep space atomic clocks, and cosmic satellites.

Spacex's Falcon Heavy Test Flight:


Image Credit : Space-X 

Sunday, February 4, 2018

What is Satellite?

What is Satellite:

     A satellite is a artificial or man made object injected into space for particular applications. (Applications such as weather monitoring, astronomical observation, resource satellites, space explorations..,). The satellite is injected at a certain height from the earth surface which we call orbit. Man-made satellites are also called artificial satellites, this is because to distinguish from natural satellite (Earth's Moon).

Satellite orbiting Earth

What is difference between natural and artificial satellite?

Natural Satellite : A natural satellite is a astronomical object orbiting around particular planet. Example: The Moon which orbits around our earth is.

Artificial Satellite:  Artificial satellite is a human made object commanded or programmed to orbit around any astronomical object. Example: Mangalyaan Satellite around planet Mars and Chandrayaan-1 around Moon.

First Satellites of Nations in 20th Century:
  1. Sputnik-1              Soviet Union
  2. Explorer-1             United States
  3. Asterix                   France
  4. Osumi                    Japan
  5. Dong Fang Hong  China
  6. Prospero                United Kingdom
  7. Rohini                    India
  8. Ofeq-1                    Israel
  9. Kosmos 2175         Russia
  10. Strela                     Ukraine
First Satellites of Nations after 20th Century:
  1. Omid                                           Iran
  2. Kwangmyongsong 3 Unit-2      North Korea
  3. Dove Pioneer, Lemur-2 (X2)     New Zealand
Types of Artificial Satellite:
  • Earth observation satellites
  • Navigational satellites
  • Communication satellites
  • Astronomical satellites
  • Biosatellites
  • Killer Satellites
  • Crewed satellites (Spaceships)
  • Nanosatellites
  • Recovery satellites
  • Reconnaissance satellites
  • Weather satellites
  • Deep space satellites
  • Tether satellites
  • Space stations
Satellite Subsystem:
    • Structural system
    • Telemetry system
    • Power system
    • Thermal control system
    • Attitude control system
    • Payloads
    • Thruster control system
Origin of artificial satellites:

     In history of science, great scientist Sir.Issac Newton first published a paper on "Possibility of an artificial satellite". Similarly, in 1879 Edward Everett Hale depicted a satellite in his frictional writing. Later in 1903 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky mentioned satellite in his published paper "Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices"

Sputnik-1 First satellite in space 1957

     The space exploration began with the first successful launch of Sputnik-1 satellite of Soviet Union in 1957. It operated for 21 days in orbit and it's mission life ended in 26th October 1957. After the successful launch of Sputnik-1, many country started to launch their own satellites into space. Some of the first satellites of the nations are mentioned above.

Frequently asked questions:

How many satellites have been launched since launch of earth's first satellite?

     As per 2013 estimate by "Global experts Agree Action Needed on Space Debris" European Space Agency, more than 6,600 satellites from 40 countries around world have been launched. Out of these 6,600 only 1000 satellites were in operational.

Which is the oldest satellite in space?

     According to the statement of Wikipedia, Vanguard-1 is the oldest satellite in space, which is still orbiting the earth with its rocket's upper stage. It deactivated in 1964.

How many satellites are currently in active?

     As listed by Goddard Space Flight Center there are 2,271 satellites are currently active in orbit. Of these 1,324 satellites were from Soviet Russia and 658 satellites from United States of America.

Can we see satellites from Earth?

     Yes, we can see satellites from earth in the night sky when they pass overhead at a particular height. It can be seen at a place where there is no light and cloud free sky. It will look like a star moving across the sky. (Note: blinking of moving light is not star but a plane)

Which country has most satellites in space?

     Russia has 1,324 satellites, United States has 658 satellites, China has 177 satellites and Japan has 56 satellites. (Source: World Atlas)

How many satellites are owned by Google?

     As far 13 satellites are owned by Google and they are called GeoEye Satellites.

How much does it cost to built and launch a satellite?

     To built a satellite, it costs from $50 dollars to $500 million dollars. For launching it costs about $8000 dollars. (approximately)

Friday, February 2, 2018

Pegasus Galaxy

NGC 7331 or Pegasus Galaxy
    New General Catalogue 7331 or Pegasus is otherwise called Caldwell 30. It is a unbarred spiral galaxy located at a distance of 40 million light-years away from our earth. It was first discovered by famous astronomer William Herschel in the year 1784. It is considered as one of the brightest member among the NGC 7331 group of galaxies. 

     The Pegasus is considered as twin sister of our Milkyway galaxy because of similar size and structure. It has a central bulge which is rotating in the opposite direction to the rest of the disk. There is a supernova called SN 1959D was the first supernova discovered and identified within this galaxy (Pegasus). The supernova was discovered by Milton Humason and H.S Gates at Palomar Observatory. Most recent discovered supernovae are SN 2013bu and SN 2014C. This galaxy was studied by visible and infrared images. The confirmation of similar size of Milkway and Pegasus was confirmed after 2000.  The approx size of the galaxy is about 120,000 light year.

This image was taken by Vicent Peris at Calar Obervatory in southern spain

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Helix Nebula

Helix Nebula

About Nebula:

     The Helix nebula is also known as New General Catalogue 7293. It is a planetary nebula which can be located in the constellation of Aquarius in the night sky and it is the nearest nebula to our earth. It was first discovered by famous astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding in 1824 (approx). It's estimated distance from earth is about 700 light year and it looks like a Cat's eye. The physical characteristics of this nebula is similar to the Dumbbell Nebula. Due to the Cat eye appearance, sometimes it is referred to as the Eye of God. 

Location and Age:

The Helix nebula is located in the Aquarius constellation and it lies about 700 light years away from our earth which spans at a rate of 0.8 parsecs. Scientist estimated the current age of the nebula is about 10,600 +2300 or -1200 years with a expansion rate of 31 km per second.

Physical Structure:

NGC 7293
     The structure of the helix nebula is prolate spheroid and it was estimated that the expansion would have occurred in past 6,560 years and 12,100 years for the expansion of inner disk. Data from the spectroscopic studies reveal that the outer ring expansion rate is 40 km per second and the inner disk expansion rate is 32 km per second. It has many cometary knots and it was the first nebulae discovered to contain this. There are more than 20,000 cometary knots are estimated to be in the Helix. The temperature range increases from outer disk to the inner disk at the rate of 900 Kelvin to 1800 Kelvin.

Image Credit : NASA's Hubble Space Telescope
Text Credit : Wiki and Team Fornax

Mission to Mars Full Movie

Mission to Mars Full Movie 
About Movie:

     Mission to Mars is a American movie directed by Brian De Palma and the original screen play was written by three authors, they were Jim Thomas, John Thomas and Graham Yost. It describes a outer imagination and the exploration & colonization of Mars in 2020. They makes a rescue mission to save the astronauts from the surface of Mars.

Movie Overview:

Movie Name          : Mission To Mars
Directed by           : Brian De Palma
Produced by         : Tom Jacobson
Production            : Touchstone pictures & Spyglass entertaintment
Music                     : Ennio Morricone
Cinematography   : Stephen H. Burum
Released                : 10 March 2000
Duration                 : 114 minutes
Country of origin   : United States
Language               : English
Total Budget          : 100 million dollars


To download this full movie tap the download button.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Total Lunar Eclipse 2018

Super blood moon 2018

What is lunar eclipse?

       Lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes into the earth's dark shadow region called umbra. At the time of eclipse the Sun, Earth and Moon are aligned in a pattern called Syzygy. ( The light from the Sun falls on Earth and the shadow of earth falls on the Moon. Lunar eclipse was first noted on 29 February 1504 by Christopher Colombus.

How total lunar eclipse occurs?

How long the lunar eclipse occurs?

     The duration of the lunar eclipse depends on the orbital location of moon and the earth. The longest distance from the earth and the moon is apogee and the shortest distance is called perigee. The longest total lunar eclipse occurs every 11 years and that was early noted on 21 December 2010 that lasted for about three hours and twenty eight minutes.

Why the lunar eclipse is red coloured and bloody?

     During the lunar eclipse, the light from the sun is completely blocked by the earth. Whatever the light get refracted from the earth falls on moon. That is red in colour and sometimes blue due to the Rayleigh scattering, the red colour is similar to the colour of sky during the sunset. So, the total lunar eclipse was sometimes called super blood moon.

Timeline of Lunar eclipse:
  • 29 February 1504
  • 08 August 1998
  • 31 January 1999
  • 28 July 1999
  • 21 January 2000
  • 16 July 2000
  • 09 January 2001
  • 05 July 2001
  • 30 December 2001
  • 24 June 2002
  • 26 May 2002
  • 20 November 2002
  • 16 May 2003
  • 09 November 2003
  • 04 May 2004
  • 28 October 2004
  • 24 April 2005
  • 17 October 2005
  • 14 March 2006
  • 07 September 2006
  • 03 March 2007
  • 28 August 2007
  • 21 February 2008
  • 16 August 2008
  • 09 February 2009
  • 06 August 2009
  • 07 July 2009
  • 31 December 2009
  • 26 June 2010
  • 21 December 2010
  • 15 June 2011
  • 10 December 2011
  • 04 June 2012
  • 28 November 2012
  • 25 April 2013
  • 25 May 2013
  • 18 October 2013
  • 15 April 2014
  • 08 October 2014
  • 04 April 2015
  • 28 September 2015
  • 23 March 2016
  • 16 September 2016
  • 18 August 2016
  • 11 February 2017
  • 07 August 2017
  • 31 January 2018
Next Expected eclipse:

      Scientists predict that next total lunar eclipse can be seen on 27 July 2018 . Every year we can see 2 lunar eclipse and many as 5. If one knows the exact date and time, so we can focus the sky and moon to see this event. The lunar eclipse is measured in Dajon scale.

Image credit : NASA
Text credit : Team Fornax

Sunday, January 28, 2018

Super Blue Blood Moon

Third Series of Super Blue Moon:

     On 31st January 2018, we will have a chance to see "super blue moon" as announced by space agencies around the world. It is the third in the series of super moons. Moon will be very closer to earth and it will be so bright that is 14 percent brighter than usual. It is the second super moon of this month and commonly called as "Blue Moon". It will pass along the earth's shadow looking like a reddish tint known as " Blood Moon".

Visibility Schedule:
  • People's of North America, Alaska and Hawaii can see the eclipse on 31st Jan, just before the sunrise.
  • People living in Middle East, Asia, Russia, Australia and New Zealand can see during the moon rise in the evening on 31 Jan.
More Information:
  1. Download Video of NASA Super Moon 360
  2. Super Moon will be foretasted live on NASA Lunar Website
  3. NASA Science Cast video live
  4. Moon Phase calendar and calculator
  5. Printable Moon Calendar 
Credits: NASA

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

What is Space?

What is Space?


     Space is a zone or place extended over millions of kilometers above our earth's surface. It consists of millions of stars, planets, asteroids, comets, meteors, suns, galaxies and many solar system. In technical term, space is a vaccum. i.e sound cannot travel. It also have dark matters and dark energies that occupies 70 percent part of the universe. It also have black holes, supernova, binary stars, pulsars and giant gas nebulae.

Can life is possible in Space?

    Yes, life is possible. As per modern discoveries life is possible only in earth.Because it lies in the habitable zone and minimal distance from sun, so that it can maintain moderate temperature for life forms. But scientists predict that life can be possible in space beyond earth. Because the vast universe have multiple number of solar system and some planet may lie in the habitable zone like our earth.

Difficulties to live in space:

     Space is a blank area where we cannot breathe as there is no air and atmosphere. we cannot live in those blank space, because the pressure is very low as compared to the pressure of blood inside our body which results in burst of body and death. It does not have sufficient platform to stand and move our body parts, so we won't be stable in one place. we keep on moving towards any direction into the cosmos. It doesn't have plants to provide sufficient oxygen for individual human to breathe and there is no water to drink. One of the major problems is the exposure to radiation. Cosmic radiation comes from deep space can cause health problems like cancer and may leads to death.Similarly, there are many challenges for human beings to survive.

How universe is formed?


     The answer for "how the space and universe is formed?" is a still a hypothesis (unproven or may be proved in future) and a very difficult question to be explained by the scientists. The science of astronomy and astrophysics born in around 4th century at the time of Greek period. To answer this question, hundreds of scientists and astronomers are working day and night for proposing a model to explain the birth of universe. Finally in early 1927, one of the famous Belgian scientist of 20th century Georges Lemaitre first proposed an "expanding model of the universe" by which he formulated Hubble Law. Later, it became a key for the "Big Bang Theory" developed by Friedmann, Lemaitre, Robertson and Walker. 

What is Big-Bang Theory?

Big-Bang Theory model
     Big-Bang is a giant explosion of energetic particles and dark matter due to the action of gravity, which resulted in the formation of universe. The explosion include nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Due to huge explosions matters started to expand and spread over the universe, these particles get collided  and combined to form stars, galaxies, solar systems and planets. Some of the small parts from the explosive became asteroids and comets. The formation took billions of years and the current age of the universe is about 4.6 billion years. Major contribution to this big-bang theory was made by American scientist "Stephen Hawking".

Black Holes:

Black Holes
     Black holes is otherwise called worm hole, which are formed by the collapsing of stars white dwarf. It have high gravitational field inside from which nothing can be escaped including light which travels at 300,000 km/sec. It is a mystery that what is inside the black hole? Research works are going on by several observatories around the world

Gravitational Waves:

Gravitational Waves
   Gravitational waves are ripples in space fabric. It was predicted by Albert Einstein in the last century but it was finally detected in 2017. It was detected by LIGO Observatory in Livingston. LIGO stands for Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory. The waves was discovered by three noble laureate's (Kip.S.Thorne et al, 2017). It was detected three times over two years in 2015 and 2016. Research papers were published about the discovery and detection of gravitational waves.

Planets and Moon:

Our Solar System
     Planets like Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and the dwarf Pluto were formed from the Sun. They were a part of burning sun. After few billion years, they started to cool shaping to a beautiful planet. The moons which are moving around every planets also formed from part of every planet. They process of geo-dynamic cooling prevailed for billion years. It made a change in the planetary surface of earth for the birth and origin of life.


      Asteroids are nothing but the minor planets existing inside our solar system. The larger asteroids was called planetoids. They never grew to large one to become a planet. The are millions of asteroids revolving around the sun. They are densely gathered in a region called asteroid belt, which lie between planet Mars and Jupiter. Sometimes many small asteroids were used to fall on the surface of Earth and Mars, Jupiter was used to impacted by many asteroids from the asteroid belt.The first ever asteroid discovered was Ceres.


   Comets are icy bodies coming from outer solar system. They are mostly made up of icy gases and used to come to our solar system after a certain cycle of time. They tend to melt and release gases when they pass close to our sun due to the action of heat. It melts completely and finally disappears. They are very popular and rare object in the sky to observe during life time. Some of the near earth comets were Encke's comet, Halley comet etc.. In our lifetime we can able to see both the comets mentioned earlier. We can see Encke comet in June 2020 and Halley's comet in July 2061 as expected by the astronomers.


Imaginative Image of Earth and Asteroids
    Our space and universe is a beautiful creation ever made. Our knowledge about the universe is just 10% and still there are many things to know. Exploring and expanding the knowledge about the universe is a human nature. we will be having wonderful and mysterious discoveries in the future. Space is, that cannot be imagined simply in our brain.

Image Credit : NASA
Text Credit: Team Spacexpress
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Saturday, January 20, 2018


GSAT-17 Animated Image by ISRO

Geostationary satellite GSAT-17 is a India's latest communication satellite launched from Kourou, French Guiana. It was carried by Ariane-5 VA-238 rocket on 29 June 2017. It has onboard payload for better communication and it also has meteorological data relay satellite.

Payloads for communication:

  • Normal C-band
  • Extended C-band
  • S-band
GSAT-17 Launch from Ariane Flight Center
The satellite was transferred into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. After its injection it master control was maintained by ISRO's Mater Control Facility located at Hassan. The satellite has a mass of 3477 kg with 15 years of extended mission life. It was designed and manufactured by Indian Space Research Organisation.

  GSAT-17 is the 21st satellite from ISRO. It is a current fleet of 17 operational telecom satellites. It has the capability to provide Fixed Satellite Services (FSS) in normal C-band and extended C-band. It also provide Mobile Satellite Services(MSS) in S-band and data relay and search & Rescue services in Ultra High Frequency.

Mission Overview:

  1. Launch Mass - 3477 kg
  2. Mission Life - 15 Years
  3. Rocket carried - Ariane-5 VA-238
  4. Satellite Type - Communication
  5. Manufacturer - ISRO
  6. Owner - ISRO
  7. Application - Communication
  8. Orbit Type - Geostationary Transfer Orbit
More Information:

GSAT-17 Launch Video from Ariane Space Flight Center, Kourou:

Mars Colour Camera - Mangalyaan Updates

Volcanic Summits:
The image shows volcanic summits located in the Tharsis region . It covers volcanoes like the largest volcano in the solar system called Olympus Mons, Arisa mons, Pavonis mons and the Ascraeus mons. It was taken at a altitude of 42,433 km and the colour has been corrected by image processing centre at Indian Space Research Organisation. The cloud formation can be seen in the image shown by arrow marks.

Three linked craters:

The image shows Margaritifer quadrangle of Mars and it covers three craters. It was taken by Mars Colour Camera onboard payload of Mangalyaan spacecraft on 26 December 2016 from an altitude of 534 km.

Corporate Region:

 The image provides details of Terrain on the surface of Mars. It was taken by MCC on 23 November 2016 from an altitude of 564 km.

Tyrrhenum quadrangle:
The image shows Tyrrhenum quadrangle of Mars having a impact crater at bottom called Muller. The crater Muller is about 120 km wide. The image was taken on 15 March 2017 from an altitude of 2812 km.

Eridania quadrangle:

The image covers Eridania quadrangle of Mars showing Cimmerium of Mars at right and Muller crater in left in the southern hemisphere of areographic region. This image was taken on 15 March 2017 from an altitude of 3072 km. 


Text credit: Indian Space Research Organisation.
Image Source :
Image credit : Mars Colour Camera | Mangalyaan | ISRO

Friday, January 19, 2018

SBRIS-GEO-4 Mission launch

Atlas-V getting ready for launch in Cape Canaveral AFS

Mission Name      SBIRS-GEO-4
Launch Site         Cape Canaveral Air Force Station 
Launch Date        19 January 2018
Time in EST         19:48:00 EST
Launch Vehicle    Atlas V Version.411
Owner                   United Launch Alliance
Mission Type       Warning Satellite
Application          Warning Purpose

About Mission:

     SBIRS-GEO-4 is a early warning satellite,this will be launched under United Launch Alliance on Thursday at 19:48:00 European Standard Time. It is ULA's 75th launch. This satellite is fourth geostationary satellite which uses Space based infrared system to detect and track missile launches.


     This satellite is constructed by Lockheed Martin Space Systems . It carries two infrared sensors and a scanning sensor to detect smaller range missiles. This satellite has a mass of 4500 kilograms and it was planned to be in operational for about 12 year mission. SBIRS was a third geostationary satellite.

Cooperative Work:

     This SBIRS-GEO-4 satellite will join another three existing geostationary satellite for a cooperative work for the detection of missiles. Previous satellites were launched and deployed in May 2011, March 2013 and January 2017. And two more GEO Satellites were aimed to launch in 2020s.

SBIRS-GEO-4 Live Launch:

Bow-Tie Nebula

NGC-40 (Bow-Tie Nebula) imaged by National Aeronautics Space Administration

New General Catalogue-40

     NGC-40 is a planetary nebula which was first discovered by famous astronomer William Herschel , during his observation into the dark sky on 25th November 1788. It was also called as Bow-Tie Nebula. He argued that the planetary nebula is composed of a dying star surrounded by hot gases. The star had already ejected its outer gas layer and the smaller star remains with a surface temperature of 50,000 degree Celsius. The temperature of the surrounding gases is about 10,000 degree Celsius which was heated by the radiation emitted from the star. Its width is about approx. 1 light year and it lie at a distance of 3500 light years away from our earth. Scientists predict that the star will fade away by leaving a small white dwarf after 30,000 years. The size of the white dwarf is equal to the size of the earth.

     This nebula is too far and it cannot be seen through our naked eye. It can be seen using extremely large telescopes and it can be located in the constellation of Cepheus. Its sister designations were Bow-Tie Nebula and Caldwell-2 as mentioned in SIMBAD Astronomical Database.
NGC-40 imaged by Hubble Space Telescope

More Information:

Sunday, January 7, 2018

5th Jan Juno Updates 2018

Jupiter Image taken by Juno - Juno Mission updates   Image credit : NASA / JPL / JUNO
Description about Image:

    Juno spacecraft took this image on 16 December 2017 at exactly 09:43 PM according to European Standard Time from a distance about 13,345 kilometers. It was taken above the Jupiter's top clouds at a latitude degree of 48.9. The spatial image resolution is 9.3 kilometers/pixel.

Image Processing:

     The raw image from Juno was processed by NASA's citizen scientists Gerald Eichstadt & Sean Doran by using data from JunoCam Imager.

JunoCam Imager:

     JunoCam is a onboard payload of Juno spacecraft installed to take image of Jupiter. It has the capability to take image through the dense clouds of Jupiter.

Juno Image to Public:

    JUNO's raw and processed image are openly available for public and their use. This can be available at

More Information:

    To know more about Juno spacecraft, it can be located at 

How much it elapsed since Juno arrival?

     It elapsed 1 Year 185 days 23 hours 35 minutes as on 07 Jan 2018 at 08:24 AM (GMT +05:30 hours India).


Image Credit : NASA/JPL Caltech

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Thermal Emission Imaging System

Thermal Emission Imaging System - Payload - 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft

     The thermal emission imaging system is a onboard payload installed in the Mars spacecraft known as 2001 Mars Odyssey. It was capable of imaging the infrared and visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is used to determine the surface temperature and mineral distribution on the surface of Martian body.It runs on 14 watts of power.

Manufactured and Management:

     The THEMIS was manufactured by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing . The control and management of this payload was undertaken by Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University.

THEMIS and TES Comparison:

     The processced image of THEMIS is very clear as compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer. THEMIS detects the minerals and temperatures at nine different wavelengths. Eight of these wavelength range from 6 to 13 micrometers and the ninth one is about 14.9 micrometers.


     Thermal Emission Imaging System discovered variety of rocks and minerals. Some of them are:
  1. Low-Silica Basalts
  2. High Silica Dacite
  3. Olivine
  4. Ultramafic basalts
  5. Quartz
  6. Magmas
  7. Mantle
  8. Granitoid Rocks
More Useful Links: