Read more:


Never Miss a Chance to see skyevents of this year


Wonderful View of Our Milkyway Galaxy


Hubble Space Telescope Updates


Wonderful Image of Orion M42 Gas Nebulae


Explore Our Solar System with Multiple Spacecrafts


An ESA Spacecraft for studying Gravitational Waves


Explore Beyond Solar System


Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Our Nearest Galaxy to Observe


NASA'S Hubble Space Telescope Photographs


Spacecraft Leaving Our Solar System


Amazing Discovery of NASA


These Nebulae mostly consist of Hydrogen Gases


Universe is not only Expanding but Accelerating

Monday, July 16, 2018

Mangalyaan Updates 2018

Olympus Mons (Mars) | Image Credit : Mangalyaan ISRO
     The above image shows picture of solar system's largest volcano Olympus Mons taken by Indian Space Research Organisation's Mangalyaan (Mars Colour Camera). It was taken on 18th March of 2018 at an altitude of 8,387 km from the surface with spatial resolution is about 436m. This volcano is located in Tharasis region and its height is about 21,000 metres.

   Mangalyaan is a small orbiter designed and developed by Indian scientists. It has been achieving its mission goal since its arrival in 2014. It is one of the active spacecraft around Mars among various Mars orbiters. Latest image of Mangalyaan was upated on 18 March 2018 in ISRO's official website.

Image Credit : ISRO | Mangalyaan

[1] ISRO (18 March 2018) "Mangalyaan Update" Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved from on 16-July-2018.

Sunday, July 15, 2018

Successful test of Crew Escape System from India

Crew Escape System:
Crew Escape System-India-Technology Demonstrator

     India had planned to carry out manned mission by 2018, but due to some obstruction in financial condition. It has achieved a major technology demonstration on 05-July-2018. The first series of tests to qualify Crew Escape System, which is critical technological relevant for human spaceflight. The crew escape system is an emergency escape designed to quickly pull astronauts along with crew module away from launch vehicle during emergency launch abort. The foremost test (Pad Abort Test) demonstrated the safe recovery of crew module in case of exigency in launch pad from Sriharikotta Rocket Launch Pad.

     After a smooth countdown of 5 hours, the Crew Escape System along with crew module with mass of 12.6 tonnes, lifted off at 07:00 AM Indian Standard Time at the opening of the launch window from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota on 05-07-2018. The test was over in 259 seconds, during the Crew Escape System roared towards the sky and landed in Bay of Bengal using main parachutes about 2.9 kilometers away from Sriharikota.

    After the launch, the Crew Escape System reached a height of 2.7 km using specially designed seven solid rocket motors. During the course of launch, nearly 300 sensors recorded various mission performance parameters. After the landing, three boats were used to recover the Crew module from Bay of Bengal.

    Indians hope that this type of Crew Capsules will be helpful in manned mission for the exploration of Moon and they may extend their exploration to Mars after subsequent mission of Mangalyaan-2. This Crew Escape System is complete indigenous technology designed and developed in India by various scientists and engineers. It is aimed that India will join the major countries to have the capabilities of launching crews to space after future successful mission. First man in space Dr.Rakesh Sharma brought proud to the Indian nation reaching the space from Russian manned mission. But, soon we will have astronauts in space, which will be launched from Indian land with its own indigenous launch vehicle.

Image Credit : Indian Space Research Organisation


[1] ISRO website (05-July-2018) " Successful flight testing of Crew Escape System-technology demonstrator" Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved from url on 15-07-2018.

Discovery of Saturn like planet around a star | India

Date: 22-June-2018

Discovery of new exoplanet around a star:
Discovery of Indian Exoplanet
     A team of researchers and engineers under professor. Abhijit Chakraborthy from Physical Research Laboratory (Ahmedabad), have discovered a planet which size lies between sub-Saturn and Super-Neptune. Its mass is about 27 times of Earth around a sun like star. The planet was named as EPIC-211945201b or K2-236b.

The work regarding the discovery and measurement has appeared in the Astronomical Journal of the American Astronomical Society and the article was published by IOP Publishing house.

The discovery was made by measuring the mass and size of the planet by using the indigenously developed PRL Advance Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) spectrograph integrated with 1.2m diameter telescope located at Gurushikhar Observatory in Mount Abu, India. There are 23 such planetary systems are known to this date with masses between 10 to 70 Earth mass and size of 4 to 8 Earth radii. This discovery is very important to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems around sun like star.

With this discovery of EPIC-211945201b, India has joined a handful of countries, which have discovered planets around stars beyond our solar system.

About PARAS:

     PARAS is the first kind of spectrograph in Asia, which can measure the mass of a planet going around a star. Rare spectrograph were found all over the world which can measure such precise measurements.

[1] ISRO (22-June-2018) "Discovery of a sub-Saturn like planet around a Sun-like star" Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved from on 15-07-2018.

Tuesday, July 3, 2018

MARS in Our Naked Eye - Night Sky Events July-2018

Earth-Mars Closest Approach
     This year will be the best to turn our telescope towards Mars. According to National Aeronautics Space Administration, from July 27 to July 30 of 2018, Mars will appear brightest object in the night sky. It is estimated that the closest approach will be in 31-July-2018. [1]

Mars in our Naked Eye:
Mars to the naked eye [2]

     Simply we can go outside and make a look into the sky. The Mars will look brighter like a star in reddish-yellow colour. This can be seen from middle of May-2018 to End July-2018.

Mars Close Approach to Earth:

     Mars will be at somewhat around 57.6 million kilometers away from Earth. Mars will reach it highest point around midnight approximately at 35 degrees above the southern horizon.
     By middle of the August, Mars will become fainter object as it will move farther away from each other in their orbits around Sun. The next estimated close approach is October 2020.[2]

Perfect for Mission Launches:

     This Mars close approach will be best for Mission launches to Mars, so that it can travel and reach earlier as possible. In this 2018- launch window NASA's InSight Mars Lander launched on 05-May-2018 from Vandenberg Air Force Station. [3]


[1] The night sky in May 2018 ( 18-May-2018) Jet Propulsion Laboratory | California Institute of Technology. (NASA). Retrieved from The Night Sky in May 2018 on 03-07-2018.
[2] Mars in our night sky ( July-2018) Mars Exploration Program. National Aeronautics Space Administration. Retrieved from on 03-07-2018.
[3] Mission Timeline ( 5-May-208) Mars InSight Mission. NASA Website. Retrieved from on 03-07-2018.

Monday, July 2, 2018

Organic Molecules in Enceladus

     Data from earlier Cassini mission spacecraft has found complex organic molecules coming out of Saturn's Icy moon Enceladus. It strengthens the idea of existence of water and hosts good condition for life.

Scientists revealed that complex organic material get mixed with hot hydro-thermal water and released into space in the form of water vapor and ice grains. These results were discovered by a team led by Frank Postberg and Nozair Khawaja from the University of Heidelberg.

On Enceladus, bubbles of gas, rising through miles of ocean, could bring up organic material from depths, where they could form a thin film floating on the ocean surface and in cracks of vents, in the interior of the moon, beneath its icy shell.
After rising near the top of the ocean, the bubbles may burst or otherwise disperse the organics, where they were detected by Cassini.
Continuing studies of Cassini data will help us unravel the mysteries of this intriguing ocean world,” said Cassini Project Scientist Linda Spilker of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.
[1] Gretchen McCartney, Dwayne Brown, JoAnna Wendel, Markus Bauer (27 June 2018) " Complex Organics Bubble up from Ocean-world Enceladus" NASA Website. Retrieved from on 02-06-2018.
Information Source: NASA
Image : NASA

Saturday, May 5, 2018

Insight Mars Lander Launch

Insight Mars Lander on Atlas-V Rocket at Vandenburg launch pad

     NASA's mission to Mars to study the Interior part of Mars with the launch of Insight Mars Lander on 5th May 2018. It will the first mission to be launched from Canada. The lander will be launched in May-June Mars launch window, which is determined by Hohmann Transfer Orbit. ( The cheap and most fuel saving path for Mars). 

   This lander was designed and constructed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory a part of California Institute of Technology.The lander will be carried out by Atlas-V class launch vehicle.

About Insight Mars Lander:

Insight Lander

     It is a robotic lander designed to study the interior and subsurface of Mars. This study will help scientists to understand the history of Earth and Solar system. The expectation of the arrival is around November 2018. It carries two science instruments additionally to deploy during EDL phase to perform radio science experiment. They are Seismometer and heat probe to study the internal structure of Mars.

Backronym: InSight

InSight - Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport. 

Successfully Launched:

     Rocket of United Alliance (Atlas-V) lifted-off from the Space Launch Complex-3 that is Vandenburg Air Force Base, California.  The lift-off was on 4:05 AM at PDT time and 7:05 AM at EDT time. It will be the first mission to look beneath the Martian surface.

Image and Text  : NASA

Monday, April 9, 2018

Intricate Clouds Jupiter

Intricate Clouds of Jupiter | Image : JunoCam | NASA

Intricate Clouds:
     NASA's Juno Mission had explored intricate cloud patterns in the northern hemisphere of planet Jupiter.

This image was processed by National Aeronautics Space Administration Image Processing Department. It was taken on 1st April 2018 at 02:32 a.m, when Juno performed its twelfth close flyby of Jupiter. At that time the spacecraft was about 12,326 kilometers from the top of the clouds with an angle of 50.2 degrees.

About Juno Mission:

     Juno spacecraft was launched on 5 August 2011, from Cape Canaveral Air force station, Florida.  After few years it arrived Jupiter on 4 July 2016. From its arrival it had completed nine science pass around the Jupiter. The last science pass was on 16 December 2017. During its flybys Jupiter's clouds, atmosphere, great red-spot and radiation zone was explored including its magnetosphere. Juno mission is a part of NASA"s New Frontiers Program and the spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, part of Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech in Pasadena, California.

More Information:

Get JunoCam Raw Images at:

More Information about Juno is at:


Image Credit: JunoCam
Text Credit : NASA

Sunday, April 1, 2018

Insight Mars Lander Updates

InSight Mars Lander

     Humans started to explore Mars since 1960s. Exploration journey began with the launch of Soviet Union's spacecraft Mars 1M No.1 which failed in its first attempt. Among 12 Martian landers, Insight is one of the upcoming lander program of National Aeronautics Space Administration. It's most fundamental plan is to study deeper about Mars Surface. It had reached Vandenberg for launch in few months.

Insight Mars Lander:

     Insight is Mars Science Lander aimed to launch in May of 2018 and it will land on the surface of Mars in November 2018. After its landing, it will deploy its Seismometer & Heat Probe to perform radio science experiment. It will study and analyze the interior of the Mars body.

Mission Overview:

     Insight was manufactured and designed by NASA's Lockheed Martin Space Systems and controlled by Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mission duration was planned for approx.two years. The full form of Insight - Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport. It is constructed using the same technology from Mars Phoenix Lander which successfully landed on surface of Mars in 2008. Its construction began in 19 May 2014 and completion in 27 May 2015.

Scientific Instruments:
  1.  Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure
  2. Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package
  3. Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment
  4. Temperature and Winds for InSight
Name Chip:

     Interesting part of this lander is Name Chip, for NASA's outreach program. NASA conducted two rounds of registering names and send it to Mars. As by 2017 1.6 million names were etched in a small chip (0.3 inch). The lander have two chips for carrying name to Mars.(* I also have a ticket to send my name to Mars | Thanks to the Program Committee and Insight lander)


     The launch is scheduled between 5 May 2018 to 8 June 2018. It will be carried by Atlas-V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force base, California,United States. This will be the first interplanetary mission launched from California. The journey towards Mars will take 6.5 months of traveling time and about 484 million kilometer. The lander is planned to land in Elysium Planitia which is located slightly above the landing site of a Curiosity Rover.

Image : NASA
Text : NASA | Wikipedia  

Tags: Space Updates | Insight Mars Lander | Fornax Space Missions

Thursday, February 8, 2018

Falcon Heavy

Falcon Heavy standing on launch pad
     Falcon Heavy is a giant reusable heavy launch vehicle designed and manufactured by Elon Musk's SpaceX. Its two Falcon-9 first stages and one Falcon-9 rocket makes it a powerful rocket.  It has variable payload lift capability which increases from 63,800 kilograms to Low Earth Orbit. It became world's fourth highest capacity rocket built ever after the Saturn-V and Energia rockets. It was designed to carry humans into space including Moon.

First Successful Launch:

     SpaceX made a history by launching its first heavy vehicle on 6 February 2018 at 3:45 pm according to European Standard Time. It carried a dummy payload "Roadster". It design and manufacture struggling started from September 2005, finally its made its achievement on Feb 6,2018.  It was developed with complete private capital somewhat around $500 million USD dollars and no government financial support was provided from the government.


     The primary design is the centered rocket is complete Falcon-9 and it side boosters are first stages of Falcon-9 rocket. Elon Musk gave a talk in Mars Society for launch of Falcon type rockets in around 2013 and it finally got success in 2018. 

Falcon Heavy propelling into space

First Flight:

     Flight-1 - It was carried on 6 February 2018 at 20:45 UTC by SpaceX. It carried Spacex's Roadster as payload and the mission outcome was success. It lifted successfully from the ground and then the Roadster was sent to Trans-Mars Injection heliocentric orbit. Then its both side boosters landed successfully and the two centered boosters suffered a engine failure, re-entered and struck the ocean damaging the engines. (Drone ship).

Future Flight:

     SpaceX aimed to make its next launch in June 2018 carrying some nanosatellites, deep space atomic clocks, and cosmic satellites.

Spacex's Falcon Heavy Test Flight:


Image Credit : Space-X 

Sunday, February 4, 2018

What is Satellite?

What is Satellite:

     A satellite is a artificial or man made object injected into space for particular applications. (Applications such as weather monitoring, astronomical observation, resource satellites, space explorations..,). The satellite is injected at a certain height from the earth surface which we call orbit. Man-made satellites are also called artificial satellites, this is because to distinguish from natural satellite (Earth's Moon).

Satellite orbiting Earth

What is difference between natural and artificial satellite?

Natural Satellite : A natural satellite is a astronomical object orbiting around particular planet. Example: The Moon which orbits around our earth is.

Artificial Satellite:  Artificial satellite is a human made object commanded or programmed to orbit around any astronomical object. Example: Mangalyaan Satellite around planet Mars and Chandrayaan-1 around Moon.

First Satellites of Nations in 20th Century:
  1. Sputnik-1              Soviet Union
  2. Explorer-1             United States
  3. Asterix                   France
  4. Osumi                    Japan
  5. Dong Fang Hong  China
  6. Prospero                United Kingdom
  7. Rohini                    India
  8. Ofeq-1                    Israel
  9. Kosmos 2175         Russia
  10. Strela                     Ukraine
First Satellites of Nations after 20th Century:
  1. Omid                                           Iran
  2. Kwangmyongsong 3 Unit-2      North Korea
  3. Dove Pioneer, Lemur-2 (X2)     New Zealand
Types of Artificial Satellite:
  • Earth observation satellites
  • Navigational satellites
  • Communication satellites
  • Astronomical satellites
  • Biosatellites
  • Killer Satellites
  • Crewed satellites (Spaceships)
  • Nanosatellites
  • Recovery satellites
  • Reconnaissance satellites
  • Weather satellites
  • Deep space satellites
  • Tether satellites
  • Space stations
Satellite Subsystem:
    • Structural system
    • Telemetry system
    • Power system
    • Thermal control system
    • Attitude control system
    • Payloads
    • Thruster control system
Origin of artificial satellites:

     In history of science, great scientist Sir.Issac Newton first published a paper on "Possibility of an artificial satellite". Similarly, in 1879 Edward Everett Hale depicted a satellite in his frictional writing. Later in 1903 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky mentioned satellite in his published paper "Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices"

Sputnik-1 First satellite in space 1957

     The space exploration began with the first successful launch of Sputnik-1 satellite of Soviet Union in 1957. It operated for 21 days in orbit and it's mission life ended in 26th October 1957. After the successful launch of Sputnik-1, many country started to launch their own satellites into space. Some of the first satellites of the nations are mentioned above.

Frequently asked questions:

How many satellites have been launched since launch of earth's first satellite?

     As per 2013 estimate by "Global experts Agree Action Needed on Space Debris" European Space Agency, more than 6,600 satellites from 40 countries around world have been launched. Out of these 6,600 only 1000 satellites were in operational.

Which is the oldest satellite in space?

     According to the statement of Wikipedia, Vanguard-1 is the oldest satellite in space, which is still orbiting the earth with its rocket's upper stage. It deactivated in 1964.

How many satellites are currently in active?

     As listed by Goddard Space Flight Center there are 2,271 satellites are currently active in orbit. Of these 1,324 satellites were from Soviet Russia and 658 satellites from United States of America.

Can we see satellites from Earth?

     Yes, we can see satellites from earth in the night sky when they pass overhead at a particular height. It can be seen at a place where there is no light and cloud free sky. It will look like a star moving across the sky. (Note: blinking of moving light is not star but a plane)

Which country has most satellites in space?

     Russia has 1,324 satellites, United States has 658 satellites, China has 177 satellites and Japan has 56 satellites. (Source: World Atlas)

How many satellites are owned by Google?

     As far 13 satellites are owned by Google and they are called GeoEye Satellites.

How much does it cost to built and launch a satellite?

     To built a satellite, it costs from $50 dollars to $500 million dollars. For launching it costs about $8000 dollars. (approximately)

Friday, February 2, 2018

Pegasus Galaxy

NGC 7331 or Pegasus Galaxy
    New General Catalogue 7331 or Pegasus is otherwise called Caldwell 30. It is a unbarred spiral galaxy located at a distance of 40 million light-years away from our earth. It was first discovered by famous astronomer William Herschel in the year 1784. It is considered as one of the brightest member among the NGC 7331 group of galaxies. 

     The Pegasus is considered as twin sister of our Milkyway galaxy because of similar size and structure. It has a central bulge which is rotating in the opposite direction to the rest of the disk. There is a supernova called SN 1959D was the first supernova discovered and identified within this galaxy (Pegasus). The supernova was discovered by Milton Humason and H.S Gates at Palomar Observatory. Most recent discovered supernovae are SN 2013bu and SN 2014C. This galaxy was studied by visible and infrared images. The confirmation of similar size of Milkway and Pegasus was confirmed after 2000.  The approx size of the galaxy is about 120,000 light year.

This image was taken by Vicent Peris at Calar Obervatory in southern spain

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Helix Nebula

Helix Nebula

About Nebula:

     The Helix nebula is also known as New General Catalogue 7293. It is a planetary nebula which can be located in the constellation of Aquarius in the night sky and it is the nearest nebula to our earth. It was first discovered by famous astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding in 1824 (approx). It's estimated distance from earth is about 700 light year and it looks like a Cat's eye. The physical characteristics of this nebula is similar to the Dumbbell Nebula. Due to the Cat eye appearance, sometimes it is referred to as the Eye of God. 

Location and Age:

The Helix nebula is located in the Aquarius constellation and it lies about 700 light years away from our earth which spans at a rate of 0.8 parsecs. Scientist estimated the current age of the nebula is about 10,600 +2300 or -1200 years with a expansion rate of 31 km per second.

Physical Structure:

NGC 7293
     The structure of the helix nebula is prolate spheroid and it was estimated that the expansion would have occurred in past 6,560 years and 12,100 years for the expansion of inner disk. Data from the spectroscopic studies reveal that the outer ring expansion rate is 40 km per second and the inner disk expansion rate is 32 km per second. It has many cometary knots and it was the first nebulae discovered to contain this. There are more than 20,000 cometary knots are estimated to be in the Helix. The temperature range increases from outer disk to the inner disk at the rate of 900 Kelvin to 1800 Kelvin.

Image Credit : NASA's Hubble Space Telescope
Text Credit : Wiki and Team Fornax

Mission to Mars Full Movie

Mission to Mars Full Movie 
About Movie:

     Mission to Mars is a American movie directed by Brian De Palma and the original screen play was written by three authors, they were Jim Thomas, John Thomas and Graham Yost. It describes a outer imagination and the exploration & colonization of Mars in 2020. They makes a rescue mission to save the astronauts from the surface of Mars.

Movie Overview:

Movie Name          : Mission To Mars
Directed by           : Brian De Palma
Produced by         : Tom Jacobson
Production            : Touchstone pictures & Spyglass entertaintment
Music                     : Ennio Morricone
Cinematography   : Stephen H. Burum
Released                : 10 March 2000
Duration                 : 114 minutes
Country of origin   : United States
Language               : English
Total Budget          : 100 million dollars


To download this full movie tap the download button.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Total Lunar Eclipse 2018

Super blood moon 2018

What is lunar eclipse?

       Lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes into the earth's dark shadow region called umbra. At the time of eclipse the Sun, Earth and Moon are aligned in a pattern called Syzygy. ( The light from the Sun falls on Earth and the shadow of earth falls on the Moon. Lunar eclipse was first noted on 29 February 1504 by Christopher Colombus.

How total lunar eclipse occurs?

How long the lunar eclipse occurs?

     The duration of the lunar eclipse depends on the orbital location of moon and the earth. The longest distance from the earth and the moon is apogee and the shortest distance is called perigee. The longest total lunar eclipse occurs every 11 years and that was early noted on 21 December 2010 that lasted for about three hours and twenty eight minutes.

Why the lunar eclipse is red coloured and bloody?

     During the lunar eclipse, the light from the sun is completely blocked by the earth. Whatever the light get refracted from the earth falls on moon. That is red in colour and sometimes blue due to the Rayleigh scattering, the red colour is similar to the colour of sky during the sunset. So, the total lunar eclipse was sometimes called super blood moon.

Timeline of Lunar eclipse:
  • 29 February 1504
  • 08 August 1998
  • 31 January 1999
  • 28 July 1999
  • 21 January 2000
  • 16 July 2000
  • 09 January 2001
  • 05 July 2001
  • 30 December 2001
  • 24 June 2002
  • 26 May 2002
  • 20 November 2002
  • 16 May 2003
  • 09 November 2003
  • 04 May 2004
  • 28 October 2004
  • 24 April 2005
  • 17 October 2005
  • 14 March 2006
  • 07 September 2006
  • 03 March 2007
  • 28 August 2007
  • 21 February 2008
  • 16 August 2008
  • 09 February 2009
  • 06 August 2009
  • 07 July 2009
  • 31 December 2009
  • 26 June 2010
  • 21 December 2010
  • 15 June 2011
  • 10 December 2011
  • 04 June 2012
  • 28 November 2012
  • 25 April 2013
  • 25 May 2013
  • 18 October 2013
  • 15 April 2014
  • 08 October 2014
  • 04 April 2015
  • 28 September 2015
  • 23 March 2016
  • 16 September 2016
  • 18 August 2016
  • 11 February 2017
  • 07 August 2017
  • 31 January 2018
Next Expected eclipse:

      Scientists predict that next total lunar eclipse can be seen on 27 July 2018 . Every year we can see 2 lunar eclipse and many as 5. If one knows the exact date and time, so we can focus the sky and moon to see this event. The lunar eclipse is measured in Dajon scale.

Image credit : NASA
Text credit : Team Fornax

Sunday, January 28, 2018

Super Blue Blood Moon

Third Series of Super Blue Moon:

     On 31st January 2018, we will have a chance to see "super blue moon" as announced by space agencies around the world. It is the third in the series of super moons. Moon will be very closer to earth and it will be so bright that is 14 percent brighter than usual. It is the second super moon of this month and commonly called as "Blue Moon". It will pass along the earth's shadow looking like a reddish tint known as " Blood Moon".

Visibility Schedule:
  • People's of North America, Alaska and Hawaii can see the eclipse on 31st Jan, just before the sunrise.
  • People living in Middle East, Asia, Russia, Australia and New Zealand can see during the moon rise in the evening on 31 Jan.
More Information:
  1. Download Video of NASA Super Moon 360
  2. Super Moon will be foretasted live on NASA Lunar Website
  3. NASA Science Cast video live
  4. Moon Phase calendar and calculator
  5. Printable Moon Calendar 
Credits: NASA

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

What is Space?

What is Space?


     Space is a zone or place extended over millions of kilometers above our earth's surface. It consists of millions of stars, planets, asteroids, comets, meteors, suns, galaxies and many solar system. In technical term, space is a vaccum. i.e sound cannot travel. It also have dark matters and dark energies that occupies 70 percent part of the universe. It also have black holes, supernova, binary stars, pulsars and giant gas nebulae.

Can life is possible in Space?

    Yes, life is possible. As per modern discoveries life is possible only in earth.Because it lies in the habitable zone and minimal distance from sun, so that it can maintain moderate temperature for life forms. But scientists predict that life can be possible in space beyond earth. Because the vast universe have multiple number of solar system and some planet may lie in the habitable zone like our earth.

Difficulties to live in space:

     Space is a blank area where we cannot breathe as there is no air and atmosphere. we cannot live in those blank space, because the pressure is very low as compared to the pressure of blood inside our body which results in burst of body and death. It does not have sufficient platform to stand and move our body parts, so we won't be stable in one place. we keep on moving towards any direction into the cosmos. It doesn't have plants to provide sufficient oxygen for individual human to breathe and there is no water to drink. One of the major problems is the exposure to radiation. Cosmic radiation comes from deep space can cause health problems like cancer and may leads to death.Similarly, there are many challenges for human beings to survive.

How universe is formed?


     The answer for "how the space and universe is formed?" is a still a hypothesis (unproven or may be proved in future) and a very difficult question to be explained by the scientists. The science of astronomy and astrophysics born in around 4th century at the time of Greek period. To answer this question, hundreds of scientists and astronomers are working day and night for proposing a model to explain the birth of universe. Finally in early 1927, one of the famous Belgian scientist of 20th century Georges Lemaitre first proposed an "expanding model of the universe" by which he formulated Hubble Law. Later, it became a key for the "Big Bang Theory" developed by Friedmann, Lemaitre, Robertson and Walker. 

What is Big-Bang Theory?

Big-Bang Theory model
     Big-Bang is a giant explosion of energetic particles and dark matter due to the action of gravity, which resulted in the formation of universe. The explosion include nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Due to huge explosions matters started to expand and spread over the universe, these particles get collided  and combined to form stars, galaxies, solar systems and planets. Some of the small parts from the explosive became asteroids and comets. The formation took billions of years and the current age of the universe is about 4.6 billion years. Major contribution to this big-bang theory was made by American scientist "Stephen Hawking".

Black Holes:

Black Holes
     Black holes is otherwise called worm hole, which are formed by the collapsing of stars white dwarf. It have high gravitational field inside from which nothing can be escaped including light which travels at 300,000 km/sec. It is a mystery that what is inside the black hole? Research works are going on by several observatories around the world

Gravitational Waves:

Gravitational Waves
   Gravitational waves are ripples in space fabric. It was predicted by Albert Einstein in the last century but it was finally detected in 2017. It was detected by LIGO Observatory in Livingston. LIGO stands for Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory. The waves was discovered by three noble laureate's (Kip.S.Thorne et al, 2017). It was detected three times over two years in 2015 and 2016. Research papers were published about the discovery and detection of gravitational waves.

Planets and Moon:

Our Solar System
     Planets like Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and the dwarf Pluto were formed from the Sun. They were a part of burning sun. After few billion years, they started to cool shaping to a beautiful planet. The moons which are moving around every planets also formed from part of every planet. They process of geo-dynamic cooling prevailed for billion years. It made a change in the planetary surface of earth for the birth and origin of life.


      Asteroids are nothing but the minor planets existing inside our solar system. The larger asteroids was called planetoids. They never grew to large one to become a planet. The are millions of asteroids revolving around the sun. They are densely gathered in a region called asteroid belt, which lie between planet Mars and Jupiter. Sometimes many small asteroids were used to fall on the surface of Earth and Mars, Jupiter was used to impacted by many asteroids from the asteroid belt.The first ever asteroid discovered was Ceres.


   Comets are icy bodies coming from outer solar system. They are mostly made up of icy gases and used to come to our solar system after a certain cycle of time. They tend to melt and release gases when they pass close to our sun due to the action of heat. It melts completely and finally disappears. They are very popular and rare object in the sky to observe during life time. Some of the near earth comets were Encke's comet, Halley comet etc.. In our lifetime we can able to see both the comets mentioned earlier. We can see Encke comet in June 2020 and Halley's comet in July 2061 as expected by the astronomers.


Imaginative Image of Earth and Asteroids
    Our space and universe is a beautiful creation ever made. Our knowledge about the universe is just 10% and still there are many things to know. Exploring and expanding the knowledge about the universe is a human nature. we will be having wonderful and mysterious discoveries in the future. Space is, that cannot be imagined simply in our brain.

Image Credit : NASA
Text Credit: Team Spacexpress
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